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Article

Thermodynamics, Charge Transfer and Practical Considerations of Solid Boosters in Redox Flow Batteries

1
Research Group of Battery Materials and Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Turku, 20014 Turun Yliopisto, Finland
2
Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
3
Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 2, 56122 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Chemistry—Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joanna Krakowiak
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2111; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082111
Received: 28 February 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Flow Batteries: Developments and Applications)
Solid boosters are an emerging concept for improving the performance and especially the energy storage density of the redox flow batteries, but thermodynamical and practical considerations of these systems are missing, scarce or scattered in the literature. In this paper we will formulate how these systems work from the point of view of thermodynamics. We describe possible pathways for charge transfer, estimate the overpotentials required for these reactions in realistic conditions, and illustrate the range of energy storage densities achievable considering different redox electrolyte concentrations, solid volume fractions and solid charge storage densities. Approximately 80% of charge storage capacity of the solid can be accessed if redox electrolyte and redox solid have matching redox potentials. 100 times higher active areas are required from the solid boosters in the tank to reach overpotentials of <10 mV. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid boosters; redox targeting; flow batteries; energy storage; redox solids solid boosters; redox targeting; flow batteries; energy storage; redox solids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moghaddam, M.; Sepp, S.; Wiberg, C.; Bertei, A.; Rucci, A.; Peljo, P. Thermodynamics, Charge Transfer and Practical Considerations of Solid Boosters in Redox Flow Batteries. Molecules 2021, 26, 2111. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082111

AMA Style

Moghaddam M, Sepp S, Wiberg C, Bertei A, Rucci A, Peljo P. Thermodynamics, Charge Transfer and Practical Considerations of Solid Boosters in Redox Flow Batteries. Molecules. 2021; 26(8):2111. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082111

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moghaddam, Mahdi, Silver Sepp, Cedrik Wiberg, Antonio Bertei, Alexis Rucci, and Pekka Peljo. 2021. "Thermodynamics, Charge Transfer and Practical Considerations of Solid Boosters in Redox Flow Batteries" Molecules 26, no. 8: 2111. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082111

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