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Review

The Role of Genetic Polymorphism and Other Factors on Clopidogrel Resistance (CR) in an Asian Population with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
2
Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 13200, Malaysia
3
Department of Cardiology, Penang General Hospital, Pulau Pinang 10990, Malaysia
4
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rafik Karaman and Arun Sharma
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071987
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 6 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
Clopidogrel is a widely-used antiplatelet drug. It is important for the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease. Clopidogrel can effectively reduce platelet activity and therefore reduce stent thrombosis. However, some patients still have ischemic events despite taking the clopidogrel due to the alteration in clopidogrel metabolism attributable to various genetic and non-genetic factors. This review aims to summarise the mechanisms and causes of clopidogrel resistance (CR) and potential strategies to overcome it. This review summarised the possible effects of genetic polymorphism on CR among the Asian population, especially CYP2C19 *2 / *3 / *17, where the prevalence rate among Asians was 23.00%, 4.61%, 15.18%, respectively. The review also studied the effects of other factors and appropriate strategies used to overcome CR. Generally, CR among the Asian population was estimated at 17.2–81.6%. Therefore, our overview provides valuable insight into the causes of RC. In conclusion, understanding the prevalence of drug metabolism-related genetic polymorphism, especially CYP2C19 alleles, will enhance clinical understanding of racial differences in drug reactions, contributing to the development of personalised medicine in Asia. View Full-Text
Keywords: clopidogrel 2; antiplatelet 3; clopidogrel resistance 4; CYP2C19 polymorphism 5; personalized medicine clopidogrel 2; antiplatelet 3; clopidogrel resistance 4; CYP2C19 polymorphism 5; personalized medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akkaif, M.A.; Daud, N.A.A.; Sha’aban, A.; Ng, M.L.; Abdul Kader, M.A.S.; Noor, D.A.M.; Ibrahim, B. The Role of Genetic Polymorphism and Other Factors on Clopidogrel Resistance (CR) in an Asian Population with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Molecules 2021, 26, 1987. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071987

AMA Style

Akkaif MA, Daud NAA, Sha’aban A, Ng ML, Abdul Kader MAS, Noor DAM, Ibrahim B. The Role of Genetic Polymorphism and Other Factors on Clopidogrel Resistance (CR) in an Asian Population with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Molecules. 2021; 26(7):1987. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071987

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akkaif, Mohammed Ahmed, Nur Aizati Athirah Daud, Abubakar Sha’aban, Mei Li Ng, Muhamad Ali Sk Abdul Kader, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, and Baharudin Ibrahim. 2021. "The Role of Genetic Polymorphism and Other Factors on Clopidogrel Resistance (CR) in an Asian Population with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)" Molecules 26, no. 7: 1987. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071987

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