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Article

Change in Collagen Fibril Diameter Distribution of Bovine Anterior Cruciate Ligament upon Injury Can Be Mimicked in a Nanostructured Scaffold

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Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, School of Engineering & Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University, 53 Kabanbay Batyr, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
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Department of Biological Sciences, Nazarbayev University, 53 Kabanbay Batyr, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Matthias Schnabelrauch
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051204
Received: 20 January 2021 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 24 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Applications 2020)
More than 200,000 people are suffering from Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) related injuries each year in the US. There is an unmet clinical demand for improving biological attachment between grafts and the host tissue in addition to providing mechanical support. For biological graft integration, it is important to provide a physiologically feasible environment for the host cells to enable them to perform their duties. However, behavior of cells during ACL healing and the mechanism of ACL healing is not fully understood partly due to the absence of appropriate environment to test cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo. This study aims at (i) investigating the change in fibril diameter of bovine ACL tissue upon injury and (ii) fabricating nanofiber-based scaffolds to represent the morphology and structure of healthy and injured ACL tissues. We hypothesized that distribution and mean diameter of ACL fibrils will be altered upon injury. Findings revealed that the collagen fibril diameter distribution of bovine ACL changed from bimodal to unimodal upon injury with subsequent decrease in mean diameter. Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold fiber diameter distribution exhibited similar bimodal and unimodal distribution behavior to qualitatively represent the cases of healthy and injured ACL, respectively. The native ACL tissue demonstrated comparable modulus values only with the aligned bimodal PCL scaffolds. There was significant difference between mechanical properties of aligned bimodal and unaligned unimodal PCL scaffolds. We believe that the results obtained from measurements of diameter of collagen fibrils of native bovine ACL tissue can serve as a benchmark for scaffold design. View Full-Text
Keywords: injury; anterior cruciate ligament; bovine; collagen; fibril; diameter injury; anterior cruciate ligament; bovine; collagen; fibril; diameter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beisbayeva, Z.; Zhanbassynova, A.; Kulzhanova, G.; Mukasheva, F.; Erisken, C. Change in Collagen Fibril Diameter Distribution of Bovine Anterior Cruciate Ligament upon Injury Can Be Mimicked in a Nanostructured Scaffold. Molecules 2021, 26, 1204. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051204

AMA Style

Beisbayeva Z, Zhanbassynova A, Kulzhanova G, Mukasheva F, Erisken C. Change in Collagen Fibril Diameter Distribution of Bovine Anterior Cruciate Ligament upon Injury Can Be Mimicked in a Nanostructured Scaffold. Molecules. 2021; 26(5):1204. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051204

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beisbayeva, Zhuldyz, Ainur Zhanbassynova, Gulzada Kulzhanova, Fariza Mukasheva, and Cevat Erisken. 2021. "Change in Collagen Fibril Diameter Distribution of Bovine Anterior Cruciate Ligament upon Injury Can Be Mimicked in a Nanostructured Scaffold" Molecules 26, no. 5: 1204. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051204

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