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In Vitro Antileishmanial and Antischistosomal Activities of Anemonin Isolated from the Fresh Leaves of Ranunculus multifidus Forsk

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Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa P.O. Box 1176, Ethiopia
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Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch P.O. Box 21, Ethiopia
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Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa P.O. Box 1176, Ethiopia
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Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
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Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstr. 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland
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University of Basel, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland
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Institut fuer Pharmazie, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 3, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesca Mancianti
Molecules 2021, 26(24), 7473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247473
Received: 4 November 2021 / Revised: 3 December 2021 / Accepted: 7 December 2021 / Published: 10 December 2021
Leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) infecting the world’s poorest populations. Effectiveness of the current antileishmanial and antischistosomal therapies are significantly declining, which calls for an urgent need of new effective and safe drugs. In Ethiopia fresh leaves of Ranunculus multifidus Forsk. are traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments including leishmaniasis and eradication of intestinal worms. In the current study, anemonin isolated from the fresh leaves of R. multifidus was assessed for its in vitro antileishmanial and antischistosomal activities. Anemonin was isolated from the hydro-distilled extract of the leaves of R. multifidus. Antileishmanial activity was assessed on clinical isolates of the promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania aethiopica and L. donovani clinical isolates. Resazurin reduction assay was used to determine antipromastigote activity, while macrophages were employed for antiamastigote and cytotoxicity assays. Antischistosomal assays were performed against adult Schistosoma mansoni and newly transformed schistosomules (NTS). Anemonin displayed significant antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 1.33 nM and 1.58 nM against promastigotes and 1.24 nM and 1.91 nM against amastigotes of L. aethiopica and L. donovani, respectively. It also showed moderate activity against adult S. mansoni and NTS (49% activity against adult S. mansoni at 10 µM and 41% activity against NTS at 1 µM). The results obtained in this investigation indicate that anemonin has the potential to be used as a template for designing novel antileishmanial and antischistosomal pharmacophores. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ranunculus multifidus; fresh leaves; antileishmanial activity; Leishmania aethiopica; Leishmania donovani; promastigotes; amastigotes; macrophage; selectivity index; anemonin Ranunculus multifidus; fresh leaves; antileishmanial activity; Leishmania aethiopica; Leishmania donovani; promastigotes; amastigotes; macrophage; selectivity index; anemonin
MDPI and ACS Style

Sirak, B.; Asres, K.; Hailu, A.; Dube, M.; Arnold, N.; Häberli, C.; Keiser, J.; Imming, P. In Vitro Antileishmanial and Antischistosomal Activities of Anemonin Isolated from the Fresh Leaves of Ranunculus multifidus Forsk. Molecules 2021, 26, 7473. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247473

AMA Style

Sirak B, Asres K, Hailu A, Dube M, Arnold N, Häberli C, Keiser J, Imming P. In Vitro Antileishmanial and Antischistosomal Activities of Anemonin Isolated from the Fresh Leaves of Ranunculus multifidus Forsk. Molecules. 2021; 26(24):7473. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247473

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sirak, Betelhem, Kaleab Asres, Asrat Hailu, Mthandazo Dube, Norbert Arnold, Cecile Häberli, Jennifer Keiser, and Peter Imming. 2021. "In Vitro Antileishmanial and Antischistosomal Activities of Anemonin Isolated from the Fresh Leaves of Ranunculus multifidus Forsk" Molecules 26, no. 24: 7473. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247473

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