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Communication

Long-Term Evaluation of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Implants in a Horse: An Experimental Pilot Study

1
School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences—FCAV, São Paulo State University—UNESP, 14884-900 Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
2
Veterinary School, Federal University of Minas Gerais—UFMG, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
3
São Carlos School of Engineering—EESC, University of São Paulo—USP, 13566-590 São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marek Brzeziński and Małgorzata Baśko
Molecules 2021, 26(23), 7224; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237224
Received: 16 October 2021 / Revised: 21 November 2021 / Accepted: 24 November 2021 / Published: 29 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polylactide-Based Materials: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications)
In horses, there is an increasing interest in developing long-lasting drug formulations, with biopolymers as viable carrier alternatives in addition to their use as scaffolds, suture threads, screws, pins, and plates for orthopedic surgeries. This communication focuses on the prolonged biocompatibility and biodegradation of PLA, prepared by hot pressing at 180 °C. Six samples were implanted subcutaneously on the lateral surface of the neck of one horse. The polymers remained implanted for 24 to 57 weeks. Physical examination, plasma fibrinogen, and the mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were performed. After 24, 28, 34, 38, and 57 weeks, the materials were removed for histochemical analysis using hematoxylin-eosin and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There were no essential clinical changes. MNT decreased after the implantation procedure, returning to normal after 48 h. A foreign body response was observed by histopathologic evaluation up to 38 weeks. At 57 weeks, no polymer or fibrotic capsules were identified. SEM showed surface roughness suggesting a biodegradation process, with an increase in the median pore diameter. As in the histopathological evaluation, it was not possible to detect the polymer 57 weeks after implantation. PLA showed biocompatible degradation and these findings may contribute to future research in the biomedical area. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatibility; biodegradation; biomaterial; polylactide-based materials; polymer; scanning electron microscopy biocompatibility; biodegradation; biomaterial; polylactide-based materials; polymer; scanning electron microscopy
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    Doi: doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0148.v1
    Link: https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202111.0148/v1
    Description: Figure S1. Physiological variables of a horse submitted to the implantation of six poly(lactic acid) (PLA) samples. (A) Heart rate (HR), (B) respiratory rate (RR) and (C) rectal temperature (RT).
MDPI and ACS Style

Carvalho, J.R.G.; Conde, G.; Antonioli, M.L.; Santana, C.H.; Littiere, T.O.; Dias, P.P.; Chinelatto, M.A.; Canola, P.A.; Zara, F.J.; Ferraz, G.C. Long-Term Evaluation of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Implants in a Horse: An Experimental Pilot Study. Molecules 2021, 26, 7224. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237224

AMA Style

Carvalho JRG, Conde G, Antonioli ML, Santana CH, Littiere TO, Dias PP, Chinelatto MA, Canola PA, Zara FJ, Ferraz GC. Long-Term Evaluation of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Implants in a Horse: An Experimental Pilot Study. Molecules. 2021; 26(23):7224. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237224

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carvalho, Júlia R.G., Gabriel Conde, Marina L. Antonioli, Clarissa H. Santana, Thayssa O. Littiere, Paula P. Dias, Marcelo A. Chinelatto, Paulo A. Canola, Fernando J. Zara, and Guilherme C. Ferraz. 2021. "Long-Term Evaluation of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Implants in a Horse: An Experimental Pilot Study" Molecules 26, no. 23: 7224. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237224

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