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Review

Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Natural Drugs

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
3
University of Ljubljana, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
University of Ljubljana, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5
Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, SK-832-32 Bratislava, Slovakia
6
Research Group of Pharmaco-Toxicological Analysis (PTA Lab), Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT), Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Listed at the end of Acknowledgments.
Academic Editor: Michal Tomczyk
Molecules 2021, 26(23), 7141; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237141
Received: 23 October 2021 / Revised: 19 November 2021 / Accepted: 20 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytotherapy: Medicinal Plants and Natural Products in Healthcare)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urinary diseases affecting men, generally after the age of 50. The prevalence of this multifactorial disease increases with age. With aging, the plasma level of testosterone decreases, as well as the testosterone/estrogen ratio, resulting in increased estrogen activity, which may facilitate the hyperplasia of the prostate cells. Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the activity of the enzyme 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone to DHT. In older men, the activity of this enzyme increases, leading to a decreased testosterone/DHT ratio. DHT may promote prostate cell growth, resulting in hyperplasia. Some medicinal plants and their compounds act by modulating this enzyme, and have the above-mentioned targets. This review focuses on herbal drugs that are most widely used in the treatment of BPH, including pumpkin seed, willow herb, tomato, maritime pine bark, Pygeum africanum bark, rye pollen, saw palmetto fruit, and nettle root, highlighting the latest results of preclinical and clinical studies, as well as safety issues. In addition, the pharmaceutical care and other therapeutic options of BPH, including pharmacotherapy and surgical options, are discussed, summarizing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia; medicinal plants; phytotherapy; saw palmetto; preclinical studies; clinical efficacy; safety issues benign prostatic hyperplasia; medicinal plants; phytotherapy; saw palmetto; preclinical studies; clinical efficacy; safety issues
MDPI and ACS Style

Csikós, E.; Horváth, A.; Ács, K.; Papp, N.; Balázs, V.L.; Dolenc, M.S.; Kenda, M.; Kočevar Glavač, N.; Nagy, M.; Protti, M.; Mercolini, L.; Horváth, G.; Farkas, Á.; on behalf of the OEMONOM. Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Natural Drugs. Molecules 2021, 26, 7141. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237141

AMA Style

Csikós E, Horváth A, Ács K, Papp N, Balázs VL, Dolenc MS, Kenda M, Kočevar Glavač N, Nagy M, Protti M, Mercolini L, Horváth G, Farkas Á, on behalf of the OEMONOM. Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Natural Drugs. Molecules. 2021; 26(23):7141. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237141

Chicago/Turabian Style

Csikós, Eszter, Adrienn Horváth, Kamilla Ács, Nóra Papp, Viktória L. Balázs, Marija S. Dolenc, Maša Kenda, Nina Kočevar Glavač, Milan Nagy, Michele Protti, Laura Mercolini, Györgyi Horváth, Ágnes Farkas, and on behalf of the OEMONOM. 2021. "Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Natural Drugs" Molecules 26, no. 23: 7141. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237141

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