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Article

Greener Monolithic Solid Phase Extraction Biosorbent Based on Calcium Cross-Linked Starch Cryogel Composite Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles for Benzo(a)pyrene Analysis

1
Integrated Science and Technology Research Center, Faculty of Technology and Environment, Phuket Campus, Prince of Songkla University, Kathu, Phuket 83120, Thailand
2
Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Hat Yai Campus, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Gentili and Pierpaolo Tomai
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6163; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206163
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Future Trends in Sample Preparation)
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) has been recognized as a marker for the detection of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, a novel monolithic solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent based on graphene oxide nanoparticles (GO) in starch-based cryogel composite (GO-Cry) was successfully prepared for BaP analysis. Rice flour and tapioca starch (gel precursors) were gelatinized in limewater (cross-linker) under alkaline conditions before addition of GO (filler) that can increase the ability to extract BaP up to 2.6-fold. BaP analysis had a linear range of 10 to 1000 µgL−1 with good linearity (R2 = 0.9971) and high sensitivity (4.1 ± 0.1 a.u./(µgL−1)). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 4.21 ± 0.06 and 14.04 ± 0.19 µgL−1, respectively, with excellent precision (0.17 to 2.45%RSD). The accuracy in terms of recovery from spiked samples was in the range of 84 to 110% with no significant difference to a C18 cartridge. GO-Cry can be reproducibly prepared with 2.8%RSD from 4 lots and can be reused at least 10 times, which not only helps reduce the analysis costs (~0.41USD per analysis), but also reduces the resultant waste to the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocryogel; biosorbent; solid phase extraction; Benzo(a)pyrene; graphene oxide nanoparticle biocryogel; biosorbent; solid phase extraction; Benzo(a)pyrene; graphene oxide nanoparticle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choodum, A.; Lamthornkit, N.; Boonkanon, C.; Taweekarn, T.; Phatthanawiwat, K.; Sriprom, W.; Limsakul, W.; Chuenchom, L.; Wongniramaikul, W. Greener Monolithic Solid Phase Extraction Biosorbent Based on Calcium Cross-Linked Starch Cryogel Composite Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles for Benzo(a)pyrene Analysis. Molecules 2021, 26, 6163. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206163

AMA Style

Choodum A, Lamthornkit N, Boonkanon C, Taweekarn T, Phatthanawiwat K, Sriprom W, Limsakul W, Chuenchom L, Wongniramaikul W. Greener Monolithic Solid Phase Extraction Biosorbent Based on Calcium Cross-Linked Starch Cryogel Composite Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles for Benzo(a)pyrene Analysis. Molecules. 2021; 26(20):6163. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206163

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choodum, Aree, Nareumon Lamthornkit, Chanita Boonkanon, Tarawee Taweekarn, Kharittha Phatthanawiwat, Wilasinee Sriprom, Wadcharawadee Limsakul, Laemthong Chuenchom, and Worawit Wongniramaikul. 2021. "Greener Monolithic Solid Phase Extraction Biosorbent Based on Calcium Cross-Linked Starch Cryogel Composite Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles for Benzo(a)pyrene Analysis" Molecules 26, no. 20: 6163. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206163

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