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Article

Anti-Herpes Simplex 1 Activity of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) Wax

1
Gilat Research Center, Department of Food Science, Agricultural Research Organization, Mobile Post Negev 8531100, Israel
2
The Dead-Sea and Arava Science Center, The Skin Research Institute, Masada 86910, Israel
3
Eilat Campus, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Eilat 8855630, Israel
4
Gilat Research Center, Department of Fruit Tree Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Mobile Post Negev 8531100, Israel
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Raffaele Capasso and Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli
Molecules 2021, 26(19), 6059; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196059
Received: 12 September 2021 / Revised: 1 October 2021 / Accepted: 3 October 2021 / Published: 7 October 2021
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) wax is used for various dermatological and pharmaceutical applications. Several reports have previously shown beneficial properties of Jojoba wax and extracts, including antimicrobial activity. The current research aimed to elucidate the impact of Jojoba wax on skin residential bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), fungal (Malassezia furfur), and virus infection (herpes simplex 1; HSV-1). First, the capacity of four commercial wax preparations to attenuate their growth was evaluated. The results suggest that the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Malassezia furfur was unaffected by Jojoba in pharmacologically relevant concentrations. However, the wax significantly attenuated HSV-1 plaque formation. Next, a complete dose–response analysis of four different Jojoba varieties (Benzioni, Shiloah, Hatzerim, and Sheva) revealed a similar anti-viral effect with high potency (EC50 of 0.96 ± 0.4 µg/mL) that blocked HSV-1 plaque formation. The antiviral activity of the wax was also confirmed by real-time PCR, as well as viral protein expression by immunohistochemical staining. Chemical characterization of the fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition was performed, showing high similarity between the wax of the investigated varieties. Lastly, our results demonstrate that the observed effects are independent of simmondsin, repeatedly associated with the medicinal impact of Jojoba wax, and that Jojoba wax presence is required to gain protection against HSV-1 infection. Collectively, our results support the use of Jojoba wax against HSV-1 skin infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Jojoba; medicinal properties; dermatology; bioactive molecules; Simmondsia chinensis; simmondsin; virus; HSV-1; Herpes simplex Jojoba; medicinal properties; dermatology; bioactive molecules; Simmondsia chinensis; simmondsin; virus; HSV-1; Herpes simplex
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tietel, Z.; Melamed, S.; Eretz-Kdosha, N.; Guetta, A.; Gvirtz, R.; Ogen-Shtern, N.; Dag, A.; Cohen, G. Anti-Herpes Simplex 1 Activity of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) Wax. Molecules 2021, 26, 6059. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196059

AMA Style

Tietel Z, Melamed S, Eretz-Kdosha N, Guetta A, Gvirtz R, Ogen-Shtern N, Dag A, Cohen G. Anti-Herpes Simplex 1 Activity of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) Wax. Molecules. 2021; 26(19):6059. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tietel, Zipora, Sarit Melamed, Noy Eretz-Kdosha, Ami Guetta, Raanan Gvirtz, Navit Ogen-Shtern, Arnon Dag, and Guy Cohen. 2021. "Anti-Herpes Simplex 1 Activity of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) Wax" Molecules 26, no. 19: 6059. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196059

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