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Article

Whey Proteins as a Potential Co-Surfactant with Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a Stabilizer in Nanoemulsions Derived from Hempseed Oil

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Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-695 Poznań, Poland
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Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 38/42, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
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Food, Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land & Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, 2205 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
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Independent Researcher, 60-343 Poznań, Poland
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Department of Food Technology of Plant Origin, Poznań University of Life Sciences, 31 Wojska Polskiego St., 60-624 Poznań, Poland
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Department of Food Quality and Safety Management, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31/33, 60-624 Poznań, Poland
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Department of Synthesis and Structure of Organic Compounds, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 8, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Seyed Fakhreddin Hosseini
Molecules 2021, 26(19), 5856; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195856
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 7 September 2021 / Accepted: 20 September 2021 / Published: 27 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Protein Sources for Food Production and Human Nutrition)
The use of natural surfactants including plant extracts, plant hydrocolloids and proteins in nanoemulsion systems has received commercial interest due to demonstrated safety of use and potential health benefits of plant products. In this study, a whey protein isolate (WPI) from a byproduct of cheese production was used to stabilize a nanoemulsion formulation that contained hempseed oil and the Aesculus hippocastanum L. extract (AHE). A Box–Behnken experimental design was used to set the formulation criteria and the optimal nanoemulsion conditions, used subsequently in follow-up experiments that measured specifically emulsion droplet size distribution, stability tests and visual quality. Regression analysis showed that the concentration of HSO and the interaction between HSO and the WPI were the most significant factors affecting the emulsion polydispersity index and droplet size (nm) (p < 0.05). Rheological tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and L*a*b* color parameters were also taken to characterize the physicochemical properties of the emulsions. Emulsion systems with a higher concentration of the AHE had a potential metabolic activity up to 84% in a microbiological assay. It can be concluded from our results that the nanoemulsion system described herein is a safe and stable formulation with potential biological activity and health benefits that complement its use in the food industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsion; whey protein; Aesculus hippocastanum L.; hempseed oil; emulsion stability; droplet size nanoemulsion; whey protein; Aesculus hippocastanum L.; hempseed oil; emulsion stability; droplet size
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smułek, W.; Siejak, P.; Fathordoobady, F.; Masewicz, Ł.; Guo, Y.; Jarzębska, M.; Kitts, D.D.; Kowalczewski, P.Ł.; Baranowska, H.M.; Stangierski, J.; Szwajca, A.; Pratap-Singh, A.; Jarzębski, M. Whey Proteins as a Potential Co-Surfactant with Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a Stabilizer in Nanoemulsions Derived from Hempseed Oil. Molecules 2021, 26, 5856. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195856

AMA Style

Smułek W, Siejak P, Fathordoobady F, Masewicz Ł, Guo Y, Jarzębska M, Kitts DD, Kowalczewski PŁ, Baranowska HM, Stangierski J, Szwajca A, Pratap-Singh A, Jarzębski M. Whey Proteins as a Potential Co-Surfactant with Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a Stabilizer in Nanoemulsions Derived from Hempseed Oil. Molecules. 2021; 26(19):5856. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195856

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smułek, Wojciech, Przemysław Siejak, Farahnaz Fathordoobady, Łukasz Masewicz, Yigong Guo, Małgorzata Jarzębska, David D. Kitts, Przemysław Ł. Kowalczewski, Hanna M. Baranowska, Jerzy Stangierski, Anna Szwajca, Anubhav Pratap-Singh, and Maciej Jarzębski. 2021. "Whey Proteins as a Potential Co-Surfactant with Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a Stabilizer in Nanoemulsions Derived from Hempseed Oil" Molecules 26, no. 19: 5856. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195856

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