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Article

Possibility of Human Gender Recognition Using Raman Spectra of Teeth

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Department of Physics and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Research Unit New Functional Materials, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Center of Excellence in Reproductive and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Institute of Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Community Health Center “Kutina”, 44320 Kutina, Croatia
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Department of Dental Anthropology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, University Hospital Centre, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Barry K. Lavine
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 3983; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133983
Received: 30 May 2021 / Revised: 24 June 2021 / Accepted: 26 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Vibrational Spectroscopy and Imaging)
Gender determination of the human remains can be very challenging, especially in the case of incomplete ones. Herein, we report a proof-of-concept experiment where the possibility of gender recognition using Raman spectroscopy of teeth is investigated. Raman spectra were recorded from male and female molars and premolars on two distinct sites, tooth apex and anatomical neck. Recorded spectra were sorted into suitable datasets and initially analyzed with principal component analysis, which showed a distinction between spectra of male and female teeth. Then, reduced datasets with scores of the first 20 principal components were formed and two classification algorithms, support vector machine and artificial neural networks, were applied to form classification models for gender recognition. The obtained results showed that gender recognition with Raman spectra of teeth is possible but strongly depends both on the tooth type and spectrum recording site. The difference in classification accuracy between different tooth types and recording sites are discussed in terms of the molecular structure difference caused by the influence of masticatory loading or gender-dependent life events. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; multivariate statistical methods; principal component analysis; support vector machine; artificial neural network; forensic dentistry; gender determination Raman spectroscopy; multivariate statistical methods; principal component analysis; support vector machine; artificial neural network; forensic dentistry; gender determination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gamulin, O.; Škrabić, M.; Serec, K.; Par, M.; Baković, M.; Krajačić, M.; Babić, S.D.; Šegedin, N.; Osmani, A.; Vodanović, M. Possibility of Human Gender Recognition Using Raman Spectra of Teeth. Molecules 2021, 26, 3983. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133983

AMA Style

Gamulin O, Škrabić M, Serec K, Par M, Baković M, Krajačić M, Babić SD, Šegedin N, Osmani A, Vodanović M. Possibility of Human Gender Recognition Using Raman Spectra of Teeth. Molecules. 2021; 26(13):3983. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133983

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gamulin, Ozren, Marko Škrabić, Kristina Serec, Matej Par, Marija Baković, Maria Krajačić, Sanja D. Babić, Nikola Šegedin, Aziz Osmani, and Marin Vodanović. 2021. "Possibility of Human Gender Recognition Using Raman Spectra of Teeth" Molecules 26, no. 13: 3983. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133983

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