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Article

Novel, Stable Catholyte for Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries: Symmetric Cell Study of Hydroquinones with High Accessible Capacity

1
Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, 07743 Jena, Germany
2
Center for Energy and Environmental Chemistry Jena (CEEC Jena), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Philosophenweg 7a, 07743 Jena, Germany
3
JenaBatteries GmbH, Otto-Schott-Strasse 15, 07745 Jena, Germany
4
Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Magyar Tudosok Korutja 2, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Academic Editor: Subashani Maniam
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 3823; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133823
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 19 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Flow Batteries: Developments and Applications)
Owing to their broad range of redox potential, quinones/hydroquinones can be utilized for energy storage in redox flow batteries. In terms of stability, organic catholytes are more challenging than anolytes. The two-electron transfer feature adds value when building all-quinone flow battery systems. However, the dimerization of quinones/hydroquinones usually makes it difficult to achieve a full two-electron transfer in practical redox flow battery applications. In this work, we designed and synthesized four new hydroquinone derivatives bearing morpholinomethylene and/or methyl groups in different positions on the benzene ring to probe molecular stability upon battery cycling. The redox potential of the four molecules were investigated, followed by long-term stability tests using different supporting electrolytes and cell cycling methods in a symmetric flow cell. The derivative with two unoccupied ortho positions was found highly unstable, the cell of which exhibited a capacity decay rate of ~50% per day. Fully substituted hydroquinones turned out to be more stable. In particular, 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-bis(morpholinomethylene)benzene-1,4-diol (asym-O-5) displayed a capacity decay of only 0.45%/day with four-week potentiostatic cycling at 0.1 M in 1 M H3PO4. In addition, the three fully substituted hydroquinones displayed good accessible capacity of over 82%, much higher than those of conventional quinone derivatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroquinone; catholyte; stability; symmetric cell study; redox flow batteries; energy storage hydroquinone; catholyte; stability; symmetric cell study; redox flow batteries; energy storage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, X.; Garcia, S.N.; Janoschka, T.; Kónya, D.; Hager, M.D.; Schubert, U.S. Novel, Stable Catholyte for Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries: Symmetric Cell Study of Hydroquinones with High Accessible Capacity. Molecules 2021, 26, 3823. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133823

AMA Style

Yang X, Garcia SN, Janoschka T, Kónya D, Hager MD, Schubert US. Novel, Stable Catholyte for Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries: Symmetric Cell Study of Hydroquinones with High Accessible Capacity. Molecules. 2021; 26(13):3823. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133823

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Xian, Sergio Navarro Garcia, Tobias Janoschka, Dénes Kónya, Martin D. Hager, and Ulrich S. Schubert. 2021. "Novel, Stable Catholyte for Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries: Symmetric Cell Study of Hydroquinones with High Accessible Capacity" Molecules 26, no. 13: 3823. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133823

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