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Article

Potentiometric Surfactant Sensor Based on 1,3-Dihexadecyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium for Anionic Surfactants in Detergents and Household Care Products

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Faculty of Geotechnical Engineering, University of Zagreb, 42000 Varaždin, Croatia
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Saponia Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Foodstuff Industry, Inc., 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Biotechnology, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Food Technology, University North, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
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Department of Civil Engineering, University North, 42000 Varaždin, Croatia
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Department of Packaging, Recycling and Environmental Protection, University North, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
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Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Chemistry, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Celeiro and Maria Llompart
Molecules 2021, 26(12), 3627; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123627
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Advances in Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Analysis)
A 1,3-dihexadecyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium-tetraphenylborate (DHBI-TPB) ion-pair implemented in DHBI-TPB surfactant sensor was used for the potentiometric quantification of anionic surfactants in detergents and commercial household care products. The DHBI-TPB ion-pair was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and computational analysis which revealed a crucial contribution of the C–H∙∙∙π contacts for the optimal complex formation. The DHBI-TPB sensor potentiometric response showed excellent analytical properties and Nernstian slope for SDS (60.1 mV/decade) with LOD 3.2 × 10−7 M; and DBS (58.4 mV/decade) with LOD 6.1 × 10−7 M was obtained. The sensor possesses exceptional resistance to different organic and inorganic interferences in broad pH (2–10) range. DMIC used as a titrant demonstrated superior analytical performances for potentiometric titrations of SDS, compared to other tested cationic surfactants (DMIC > CTAB > CPC > Hyamine 1622). The combination of DHBI-TPB sensor and DMIC was successfully employed to perform titrations of the highly soluble alkane sulfonate homologues. Nonionic surfactants (increased concentration and number of EO groups) had a negative impact on anionic surfactant titration curves and a signal change. The DHBI-TPB sensor was effectively employed for the determination of technical grade anionic surfactants presenting the recoveries from 99.5 to 101.3%. The sensor was applied on twelve powered samples as well as liquid-gel and handwashing home care detergents containing anionic surfactants. The obtained results showed good agreement compared to the outcomes measured by ISE surfactant sensor and a two-phase titration method. The developed DHBI-TPB surfactant sensor could be used for quality control in industry and has great potential in environmental monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: anionic surfactants; sensor; potentiometry; detergents; nonionic surfactants; household detergents; molecular dynamics simulations anionic surfactants; sensor; potentiometry; detergents; nonionic surfactants; household detergents; molecular dynamics simulations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakač, N.; Madunić-Čačić, D.; Marković, D.; Hok, L.; Vianello, R.; Šarkanj, B.; Đurin, B.; Hajdek, K.; Smoljan, B.; Milardović, S.; Matasović, B.; Jozanović, M. Potentiometric Surfactant Sensor Based on 1,3-Dihexadecyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium for Anionic Surfactants in Detergents and Household Care Products. Molecules 2021, 26, 3627. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123627

AMA Style

Sakač N, Madunić-Čačić D, Marković D, Hok L, Vianello R, Šarkanj B, Đurin B, Hajdek K, Smoljan B, Milardović S, Matasović B, Jozanović M. Potentiometric Surfactant Sensor Based on 1,3-Dihexadecyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium for Anionic Surfactants in Detergents and Household Care Products. Molecules. 2021; 26(12):3627. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123627

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakač, Nikola, Dubravka Madunić-Čačić, Dean Marković, Lucija Hok, Robert Vianello, Bojan Šarkanj, Bojan Đurin, Krunoslav Hajdek, Božo Smoljan, Stjepan Milardović, Brunislav Matasović, and Marija Jozanović. 2021. "Potentiometric Surfactant Sensor Based on 1,3-Dihexadecyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium for Anionic Surfactants in Detergents and Household Care Products" Molecules 26, no. 12: 3627. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123627

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