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Article

A Comparative Analysis of In Vitro Toxicity of Synthetic Zeolites on IMR-90 Human Lung Fibroblast Cells

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016, India
3
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004, USA
4
Department of Hospital Pathology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Jerzy Datka, Włodzimierz Mozgawa and Dorota Rutkowska-Zbik
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3194; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113194
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zeolites and Mesoporous Materials: Properties and Applications)
Broad industrial application of zeolites increases the opportunity of inhalation. However, the potential impact of different types and compositions of zeolite on cytotoxicity is still unknown. Four types of synthetic zeolites have been prepared for assessing the effect on lung fibroblast: two zeolite L (LTL-R and LTL-D), ZSM-5 (MFI-S), and faujasite (FAU-S). The cytotoxicity of zeolites on human lung fibroblast (IMR-90) was assessed using WST1 cell proliferation assay, mitochondrial function, membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed under control. Intracellular changes were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Toxicity-related gene expressions were evaluated by PCR array. The result showed significantly higher toxicity in IMR-90 cells with FAU-S than LTL-R, LTL-D and MFI-S exposure. TEM showed FAU-S, spheroidal zeolite with a low Si/Al ratio, was readily internalized forming numerous phagosomes in IMR-90 cells, while the largest and disc-shaped zeolites showed the lowest toxicity and were located in submembranous phagosomes in IMR-90 cells. Differential expression of TNF related genes was detected using PCR arrays and confirmed using qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes. Collectively, the exposure of different zeolites shows different toxicity on IMR-90 cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: zeolite; fibroblast; lung; IMR-90; cytotoxicity; glutathione zeolite; fibroblast; lung; IMR-90; cytotoxicity; glutathione
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, S.-H.; Kumar, M.; Kim, I.W.; Rimer, J.D.; Kim, T.-J. A Comparative Analysis of In Vitro Toxicity of Synthetic Zeolites on IMR-90 Human Lung Fibroblast Cells. Molecules 2021, 26, 3194. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113194

AMA Style

Yu S-H, Kumar M, Kim IW, Rimer JD, Kim T-J. A Comparative Analysis of In Vitro Toxicity of Synthetic Zeolites on IMR-90 Human Lung Fibroblast Cells. Molecules. 2021; 26(11):3194. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113194

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Seung-Hye, Manjesh Kumar, Il W. Kim, Jeffrey D. Rimer, and Tae-Jung Kim. 2021. "A Comparative Analysis of In Vitro Toxicity of Synthetic Zeolites on IMR-90 Human Lung Fibroblast Cells" Molecules 26, no. 11: 3194. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113194

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