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Article

Synergistic Effect of Mandarin Peels and Hesperidin with Sodium Nitrite against Some Food Pathogen Microbes

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Najran University, Najran 1988, Saudi Arabia
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Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre, Cairo 12622, Egypt
3
Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, National Research Centre, Cairo 12622, Egypt
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Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Najran University, Najran 1988, Saudi Arabia
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Applied Medical Sciences College, Najran University, Najran 1988, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Phytochemistry and Plant Systematics, Pharmaceutical Division, National Research Centre, Cairo 12622, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3186; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113186
Received: 13 April 2021 / Revised: 17 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Food preservatives such as NaNO2, which are widely used in human food products, undoubtedly affect, to some extent, human organs and health. For this reason, there is a need to reduce the hazards of these chemical preservatives, by replacing them with safe natural bio-preservatives, or adding them to synthetic ones, which provides synergistic and additive effects. The Citrus genus provides a rich source of such bio-preservatives, in addition to the availability of the genus and the low price of citrus fruit crops. In this study, we identify the most abundant flavonoids in citrus fruits (hesperidin) from the polar extract of mandarin peels (agro-waste) by using spectroscopic techniques, as well as limonene from the non-polar portion using GC techniques. Then, we explore the synergistic and additive effects of hesperidin from total mandarin extract with widely used NaNO2 to create a chemical preservative in food products. The results are promising and show a significant synergistic and additive activity. The combination of mandarin peel extract with NaNO2 had synergistic antibacterial activity against B. cereus, Staph. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa, while hesperidin showed a synergistic effect against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa and an additive effect against Staph. aureus and E. coli. These results refer to the ability of reducing the concentration of NaNO2 and replacing it with a safe natural bio-preservative such as hesperidin from total mandarin extract. Moreover, this led to gaining benefits from their biological and nutritive values. View Full-Text
Keywords: mandarin peel; food preservatives; natural antimicrobials; sodium nitrites mandarin peel; food preservatives; natural antimicrobials; sodium nitrites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Attia, G.H.; Marrez, D.A.; Mohammed, M.A.; Albarqi, H.A.; Ibrahim, A.M.; Raey, M.A.E. Synergistic Effect of Mandarin Peels and Hesperidin with Sodium Nitrite against Some Food Pathogen Microbes. Molecules 2021, 26, 3186. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113186

AMA Style

Attia GH, Marrez DA, Mohammed MA, Albarqi HA, Ibrahim AM, Raey MAE. Synergistic Effect of Mandarin Peels and Hesperidin with Sodium Nitrite against Some Food Pathogen Microbes. Molecules. 2021; 26(11):3186. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113186

Chicago/Turabian Style

Attia, Gouda H., Diaa A. Marrez, Mona A. Mohammed, Hassan A. Albarqi, Ammar M. Ibrahim, and Mohamed A. El Raey. 2021. "Synergistic Effect of Mandarin Peels and Hesperidin with Sodium Nitrite against Some Food Pathogen Microbes" Molecules 26, no. 11: 3186. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113186

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