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Article

Direct Visualization of Amlodipine Intervention into Living Cells by Means of Fluorescence Microscopy

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Department of NanoBiophotonics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
2
Chromatin Imaging and Labeling Group, Department of NanoBiophotonics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
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Federal Research Center Crystallography and Photonics, Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novatorov 7a, 119421 Moscow, Russia
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National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye Shosse 31, 115409 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ioannis Kostakis and Evagelos Gikas
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102997
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 16 May 2021 / Published: 18 May 2021
Amlodipine, a unique long-lasting calcium channel antagonist and antihypertensive drug, has weak fluorescence in aqueous solutions. In the current paper, we show that direct visualization of amlodipine in live cells is possible due to the enhanced emission in cellular environment. We examined the impact of pH, polarity and viscosity of the environment as well as protein binding on the spectral properties of amlodipine in vitro, and used quantum chemical calculations for assessing the mechanism of fluorescence quenching in aqueous solutions. The confocal fluorescence microscopy shows that the drug readily penetrates the plasma membrane and accumulates in the intracellular vesicles. Visible emission and photostability of amlodipine allow confocal time-lapse imaging and the drug uptake monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: amlodipine; fluorescence; live cell imaging; microscopy; lysosomes amlodipine; fluorescence; live cell imaging; microscopy; lysosomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Quentin, C.; Gerasimaitė, R.; Freidzon, A.; Atabekyan, L.S.; Lukinavičius, G.; Belov, V.N.; Mitronova, G.Y. Direct Visualization of Amlodipine Intervention into Living Cells by Means of Fluorescence Microscopy. Molecules 2021, 26, 2997. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102997

AMA Style

Quentin C, Gerasimaitė R, Freidzon A, Atabekyan LS, Lukinavičius G, Belov VN, Mitronova GY. Direct Visualization of Amlodipine Intervention into Living Cells by Means of Fluorescence Microscopy. Molecules. 2021; 26(10):2997. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102997

Chicago/Turabian Style

Quentin, Christine, Rūta Gerasimaitė, Alexandra Freidzon, Levon S. Atabekyan, Gražvydas Lukinavičius, Vladimir N. Belov, and Gyuzel Y. Mitronova 2021. "Direct Visualization of Amlodipine Intervention into Living Cells by Means of Fluorescence Microscopy" Molecules 26, no. 10: 2997. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102997

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