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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Four Novel Bio-Based DES (Deep Eutectic Solvents) on Hardwood Fractionation

Department of Chemistry-DBA center, University of Lleida, ETSEA, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Academic Editors: James Sherwood, Thomas J. Farmer and James H. Clark
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092157
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 May 2020 / Published: 5 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based and Safer Solvents)
Using the basic principle of construction between a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and a hydrogen bond donor (HBD), four bio-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared in a 1:2 molar ratio of HBA:HBD. 2,3-Dihydroxypropyl-1-triethylammonium chloride ([C9H22N+O2]Cl) was synthesized from raw glycerol and used as an HBA. Lactic acid, urea, pure glycerol, and ethylene glycol were selected as HBD. Attempts to prepare DESs, using citric acid and benzoic acid as HBDs, were unsuccessful. All these DESs were characterized using FTIR and NMR techniques. Besides, physicochemical parameters such as pH, viscosity, density, and melting point were determined. The behavior of these DES to fractionate olive pomace was studied. Lignin recovery yields spanned between 27% and 39% (w/w) of the available lignin in olive pomace. The best DES, in terms of lignin yield ([C9H22N+O2]Cl -lactic acid), was selected to perform a scale-up lignin extraction using 40 g of olive pomace. Lignin recovery on the multigram scale was similar to the mg scale (38% w/w). Similarly, for the holocellulose-rich fractions, recovery yields were 34% and 45% for mg and multi-gram scale, respectively. Finally, this DES was used to fractionate four fruit pruning samples. These results show that our novel DESs are alternative approaches to the ionic liquid:triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate and the widely used DES: choline chloride:lactic acid (1:10 molar ratio) for biomass processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline chloride (ChCl); deep eutectic solvent (DES); extraction processes; holocellulose; hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA); hydrogen-bond donor (HBD); ionic liquid (IL); lignin; lignocellulosic materials choline chloride (ChCl); deep eutectic solvent (DES); extraction processes; holocellulose; hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA); hydrogen-bond donor (HBD); ionic liquid (IL); lignin; lignocellulosic materials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Torres, P.; Balcells, M.; Cequier, E.; Canela-Garayoa, R. Effect of Four Novel Bio-Based DES (Deep Eutectic Solvents) on Hardwood Fractionation. Molecules 2020, 25, 2157.

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