Using the basic principle of construction between a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and a hydrogen bond donor (HBD), four bio-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared in a 1:2 molar ratio of HBA:HBD. 2,3-Dihydroxypropyl-1-triethylammonium chloride ([C9
) was synthesized from raw glycerol and used as an HBA. Lactic acid, urea, pure glycerol, and ethylene glycol were selected as HBD. Attempts to prepare DESs, using citric acid and benzoic acid as HBDs, were unsuccessful. All these DESs were characterized using FTIR and NMR techniques. Besides, physicochemical parameters such as pH, viscosity, density, and melting point were determined. The behavior of these DES to fractionate olive pomace was studied. Lignin recovery yields spanned between 27% and 39% (w
) of the available lignin in olive pomace. The best DES, in terms of lignin yield ([C9
-lactic acid), was selected to perform a scale-up lignin extraction using 40 g of olive pomace. Lignin recovery on the multigram scale was similar to the mg scale (38% w
). Similarly, for the holocellulose-rich fractions, recovery yields were 34% and 45% for mg and multi-gram scale, respectively. Finally, this DES was used to fractionate four fruit pruning samples. These results show that our novel DESs are alternative approaches to the ionic liquid:triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate and the widely used DES: choline chloride:lactic acid (1:10 molar ratio) for biomass processing.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited