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Open AccessArticle

Novel Approach to Sample Preconcentration by Solvent Evaporation in Flow Analysis

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury, Plac Łódzki 4, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paraskevas D. Tzanavaras
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081886
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 18 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Flow Analysis)
A preconcentration module operated in flow mode and integrated with a sequential injection system with spectrophotometric detection was developed. Using the system, preconcentration was performed in continuous mode and was based on a membraneless evaporation process under diminished pressure. The parameters of the proposed system were optimized and the system was tested on the example of the spectrophotometric determination of Cr(III). The preconcentration effectiveness was determined using the signal enhancement factor. In the optimized conditions for Cr(III), it was possible to obtain the signal enhancement factors of around 10 (SD: 0.9, n = 4) and determine Cr(III) with precision and intermediate precision of 8.4 and 5.1% (CV), respectively. Depending on the initial sample volume, signal enhancement factor values of about 20 were achieved. Applicability of the developed preconcentration system was verified in combination with the capillary electrophoresis method with spectrophotometric detection on the example of determination of Zn in certified reference materials of drinking water and wastewater. Taking into account the enhancement factor of 10, a detection limit of 0.025 mg L−1 was obtained for Zn determination. Zn was determined with precision less than 6% (CV) and the results were consistent with the certified values. View Full-Text
Keywords: preconcentration; evaporation; flow analysis; sequential injection analysis preconcentration; evaporation; flow analysis; sequential injection analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paluch, J.; Kozak, J.; Wieczorek, M.; Woźniakiewicz, M.; Gołąb, M.; Półtorak, E.; Kalinowski, S.; Kościelniak, P. Novel Approach to Sample Preconcentration by Solvent Evaporation in Flow Analysis. Molecules 2020, 25, 1886.

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