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Open AccessArticle

Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents for the Extraction of Phenyletanes and Phenylpropanoids of Rhodiola rosea L.

1
St. Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical University, Prof. Popov, 14, 197376 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
2
St. Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy, Leningrad Region, Vsevolozhsky District, Kuzmolovo P 245, 188663 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
3
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Pb 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway
4
Murmansk Marine Biological Institute of the Kola Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (MMBI KSC RAS), Vladimirskaya, 17, 183010 Murmansk, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081826
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 13 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
The extraction of Rhodiola rosea rhizomes using natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) consisting of lactic acid, glucose, fructose, and water was investigated. A two-level Plackett–Burman design with five variables, followed by the steepest ascent method, was undertaken to determine the optimal extraction conditions. Among the five parameters tested, particle size, extraction modulus, and water content were found to have the highest impact on the extrability of phenyletanes and phenylpropanoids. The concentration of active compounds was analyzed by HPLC. The predicted results showed that the extraction yield of the total phenyletanes and phenylpropanoids (25.62 mg/g) could be obtained under the following conditions: extraction time of 154 min, extraction temperature of 22 °C, extraction modulus of 40, molar water content of 5:1:11 (L-lactic acid:fructose:water, mol/mol), and a particle size of rhizomes of 0.5–1 mm. These predicted values were further verified by validation experiments in predicted conditions. The experimental yields of salidroside, tyrosol, rosavin, rosin, cinnamyl alcohol and total markers (sum of phenyletanes and phenylpropanoids in mg/g) were 11.90 ± 0.02, 0.36 ± 0.02, 12.23 ± 0.21, 1.41 ± 0.01, 0.20 ± 0.01, and 26.10 ± 0.27 mg/g, respectively, which corresponded well with the predicted values from the models. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rhodiola rosea; extraction; HPLC; optimization; salidroside; tyrosol; rosavin; rosin; cinnamyl alcohol Rhodiola rosea; extraction; HPLC; optimization; salidroside; tyrosol; rosavin; rosin; cinnamyl alcohol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shikov, A.N.; Kosman, V.M.; Flissyuk, E.V.; Smekhova, I.E.; Elameen, A.; Pozharitskaya, O.N. Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents for the Extraction of Phenyletanes and Phenylpropanoids of Rhodiola rosea L.. Molecules 2020, 25, 1826.

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