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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Pesticide Type and Emulsion Fat Content on the Bioaccessibility of Pesticides in Natural Products

1
Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
2
Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, Jiangxi, China
3
College of Forestry, Northeast A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Academic Editor: Adele Pappeti
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061466
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
There is interest in incorporating nanoemulsions into certain foods and beverages, including dips, dressings, drinks, spreads, and sauces, due to their potentially beneficial attributes. In particular, excipient nanoemulsions can enhance the bioavailability of nutraceuticals in fruit- and vegetable-containing products consumed with them. There is, however, potential for them to also raise the bioavailability of undesirable substances found in these products, such as pesticides. In this research, we studied the impact of excipient nanoemulsions on the bioaccessibility of pesticide-treated tomatoes. We hypothesized that the propensity for nanoemulsions to raise pesticide bioaccessibility would depend on the polarity of the pesticide molecules. Bendiocarb, parathion, and chlorpyrifos were therefore selected because they have Log P values of 1.7, 3.8, and 5.3, respectively. Nanoemulsions with different oil contents (0%, 4%, and 8%) were fabricated to study their impact on pesticide uptake. In the absence of oil, the bioaccessibility increased with increasing pesticide polarity (decreasing Log P): bendiocarb (92.9%) > parathion (16.4%) > chlorpyrifos (2.8%). Bendiocarb bioaccessibility did not depend on the oil content of the nanoemulsions, which was attributed to its relatively high water-solubility. Conversely, the bioaccessibility of the more hydrophobic pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos) increased with increasing oil content. For instance, for chlorpyrifos, the bioaccessibility was 2.8%, 47.0%, and 70.7% at 0%, 4%, and 8% oil content, respectively. Our findings have repercussions for the utilization of nanoemulsions as excipient foods in products that may have high levels of undesirable non-polar substances, such as pesticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsions; pesticides; Log P values; lipid content; bioaccessibility nanoemulsions; pesticides; Log P values; lipid content; bioaccessibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, R.; Zhang, Z.; Li, R.; Tan, Y.; Lv, S.; McClements, D.J. Impact of Pesticide Type and Emulsion Fat Content on the Bioaccessibility of Pesticides in Natural Products. Molecules 2020, 25, 1466.

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