Next Article in Journal
Polyphenols from Salix tetrasperma Impair Virulence and Inhibit Quorum Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Next Article in Special Issue
Anion Inhibition Studies of the Beta-Carbonic Anhydrase from Escherichia coli
Previous Article in Journal
Design, Synthesis, and Antimicrobial Evaluation of New Annelated Pyrimido[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-f][1,2,4]triazines
Previous Article in Special Issue
Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes–6
Open AccessReview

Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria to Current Antibacterial Agents and Approaches to Resolve It

Department of Bioorganic & Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem P.O. Box 20002, Palestine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061340
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 12 March 2020 / Published: 16 March 2020
Antimicrobial resistance represents an enormous global health crisis and one of the most serious threats humans face today. Some bacterial strains have acquired resistance to nearly all antibiotics. Therefore, new antibacterial agents are crucially needed to overcome resistant bacteria. In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published a list of antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens, pathogens which present a great threat to humans and to which new antibiotics are urgently needed the list is categorized according to the urgency of need for new antibiotics as critical, high, and medium priority, in order to guide and promote research and development of new antibiotics. The majority of the WHO list is Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Due to their distinctive structure, Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant than Gram-positive bacteria, and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several strategies have been reported to fight and control resistant Gram-negative bacteria, like the development of antimicrobial auxiliary agents, structural modification of existing antibiotics, and research into and the study of chemical structures with new mechanisms of action and novel targets that resistant bacteria are sensitive to. Research efforts have been made to meet the urgent need for new treatments; some have succeeded to yield activity against resistant Gram-negative bacteria by deactivating the mechanism of resistance, like the action of the β-lactamase Inhibitor antibiotic adjuvants. Another promising trend was by referring to nature to develop naturally derived agents with antibacterial activity on novel targets, agents such as bacteriophages, DCAP(2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2(hydroxymethyl)propane1,3-diol, Odilorhabdins (ODLs), peptidic benzimidazoles, quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors, and metal-based antibacterial agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial; antibiotic; resistance; Gram-negative; multidrug resistance (MDR); pathogens; bacteria; alternative therapies antimicrobial; antibiotic; resistance; Gram-negative; multidrug resistance (MDR); pathogens; bacteria; alternative therapies
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Breijyeh, Z.; Jubeh, B.; Karaman, R. Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria to Current Antibacterial Agents and Approaches to Resolve It. Molecules 2020, 25, 1340.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop