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Review

An Insight into Saponins from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd): A Review

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Laboratory of Natural Resources Valorization, Department of AgroBioSciences, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University Benguerir, Ben Guerir 43150, Morocco
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Laboratory of Bio-Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Department Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Cadi Ayad University, Marrakech 40000, Morocco
3
Industrial Executive Operations Division, Gantour Industrial Site, Act 4 Community Gantour, OCP, Youssoufia 46303, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051059
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 23 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 27 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Saponins are an important group found in Chenopodium quinoa. They represent an obstacle for the use of quinoa as food for humans and animal feeds because of their bitter taste and toxic effects, which necessitates their elimination. Several saponins elimination methods have been examined to leach the saponins from the quinoa seeds; the wet technique remains the most used at both laboratory and industrial levels. Dry methods (heat treatment, extrusion, roasting, or mechanical abrasion) and genetic methods have also been evaluated. The extraction of quinoa saponins can be carried out by several methods; conventional technologies such as maceration and Soxhlet are the most utilized methods. However, recent research has focused on technologies to improve the efficiency of extraction. At least 40 saponin structures from quinoa have been isolated in the past 30 years, the derived molecular entities essentially being phytolaccagenic, oleanolic and serjanic acids, hederagenin, 3β,23,30 trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3β-hydroxy-27-oxo-olean-12en-28-oic acid, and 3β,23,30 trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid. These metabolites exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as molluscicidal, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, hemolytic, and cytotoxic properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chenopodium quinoa; Saponins; Saponins elimination methods; Extraction methods; Biological activities Chenopodium quinoa; Saponins; Saponins elimination methods; Extraction methods; Biological activities
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MDPI and ACS Style

El Hazzam, K.; Hafsa, J.; Sobeh, M.; Mhada, M.; Taourirte, M.; EL Kacimi, K.; Yasri, A. An Insight into Saponins from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd): A Review. Molecules 2020, 25, 1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051059

AMA Style

El Hazzam K, Hafsa J, Sobeh M, Mhada M, Taourirte M, EL Kacimi K, Yasri A. An Insight into Saponins from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd): A Review. Molecules. 2020; 25(5):1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051059

Chicago/Turabian Style

El Hazzam, Khadija, Jawhar Hafsa, Mansour Sobeh, Manal Mhada, Moha Taourirte, Kamal EL Kacimi, and Abdelaziz Yasri. 2020. "An Insight into Saponins from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd): A Review" Molecules 25, no. 5: 1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051059

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