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Open AccessArticle

A Green Extraction Process for Polyphenols from Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) Flowers Using Deep Eutectic Solvent and Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment

1
Department of Food Science & Nutrition, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Thessaly, N. Temponera Street, 43100 Karditsa, Greece
2
Food Quality & Chemistry of Natural Products, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (M.A.I.Ch.), International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), P.O. Box 85, 73100 Chania, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040921
Received: 22 January 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 17 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Sambucus nigra flowers, known as elderberry flowers (EBF), are a plant tissue rich in polyphenolic phytochemicals with important bioactivities. However, there are few studies dealing with the production of polyphenol-containing EBF extracts. The objective of the investigation presented herein was the development of a high-performance green extraction methodology, to generate EBF extracts enriched in polyphenolic substances, using an efficient deep eutectic solvent, combined with ultrasonication pretreatment. The DES was composed of L-lactic acid (hydrogen bond donor—HBD) and glycine (hydrogen bond acceptor—HBA) and, after an initial screening to properly regulate HBD/HBA ratio, the extraction was optimized by deploying response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, which were DES/water (85% w/v), liquid-to-solid ratio 60 mL g−1, and stirring speed 200 rounds per minute, the extraction yield in total polyphenols amounted to 121.24 ± 8.77 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry matter. The integration of ultrasonication prior to the batch stirred-tank extraction boosted polyphenol recovery of up to 174.73 ± 2.62 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry matter. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed that the richest EBF extract obtained was dominated by rutin, a di-p-coumaroylquic acid and chlorogenic acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep eutectic solvents; elderberry flowers; extraction; polyphenols; Sambucus nigra; ultrasonication deep eutectic solvents; elderberry flowers; extraction; polyphenols; Sambucus nigra; ultrasonication
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Kaltsa, O.; Lakka, A.; Grigorakis, S.; Karageorgou, I.; Batra, G.; Bozinou, E.; Lalas, S.; Makris, D.P. A Green Extraction Process for Polyphenols from Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) Flowers Using Deep Eutectic Solvent and Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment. Molecules 2020, 25, 921.

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