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Article

Traditional Yellow Dyes Used in the 21st Century in Central Iran: The Knowledge of Master Dyers Revealed by HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-HRMS/MS

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LAQV-REQUIMTE and Department of Conservation and Restoration, NOVA School of Sciences and Technology of NOVA University Lisbon, 2829-516 Monte da Caparica, Portugal
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IEM, Campus de Campolide, NOVA University Lisbon, 1070-312 Lisboa, Portugal
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Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Monica Gulmini and Domenico Montesano
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040908
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Dyes)
This work provides new knowledge on natural yellows used in Iran. Seven biological sources were selected based on interviews with dye masters in Isfahan workshops (Iran). Delphinium semibarbatum, Eremostachys laevigata, Prangos ferulacea, Morus alba, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, and Vitis vinifera are currently used in these workshops. Aiming to study the dye composition of wool samples dyed with the extracts of the selected biological sources, and the changes induced by the dyeing procedures in the original chemical composition of the plant extract, raw materials and dyed wool (by us and in the workshops) were analyzed by HPLC–DAD and UHPLC–HRMS/MS. In solutions extracted from the textiles, the main yellows for E. laevigata are luteolin-O-glycosides. In the other plant sources, the main chromophores are based on 3-O-glycosides of kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin. In pistachio hulls, myricitin derivatives were detected and we propose their use as markers. Generally, the solutions extracted from the wool displayed a higher amount of more polar compounds, but also a higher amount of aglycones. Importantly, the chromatographic profiles of the samples we prepared compared well with 17th c. yellows in Persian carpets, and therefore can be considered highly characterized references for the study of Persian yellows. View Full-Text
Keywords: dye analysis; soft extraction methods; persian dyes; flavonoids; HPLC; mass spectrometry; yellow colors; conservation dye analysis; soft extraction methods; persian dyes; flavonoids; HPLC; mass spectrometry; yellow colors; conservation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharif, S.; Nabais, P.; Melo, M.J.; Oliveira, M.C. Traditional Yellow Dyes Used in the 21st Century in Central Iran: The Knowledge of Master Dyers Revealed by HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-HRMS/MS. Molecules 2020, 25, 908. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040908

AMA Style

Sharif S, Nabais P, Melo MJ, Oliveira MC. Traditional Yellow Dyes Used in the 21st Century in Central Iran: The Knowledge of Master Dyers Revealed by HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-HRMS/MS. Molecules. 2020; 25(4):908. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040908

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sharif, Samaneh, Paula Nabais, Maria J. Melo, and M. C. Oliveira 2020. "Traditional Yellow Dyes Used in the 21st Century in Central Iran: The Knowledge of Master Dyers Revealed by HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-HRMS/MS" Molecules 25, no. 4: 908. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040908

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