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The Dissipation of Cyazofamid and Its Main Metabolite CCIM during Wine-Making Process

by Qingxi Yang 1,†, Shiwei Wei 1,†, Na Liu 2 and Zumin Gu 1,*
1
Department of Pesticide Science, Plant Protection College, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040777
Received: 9 January 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
Few studies have focused on the residues of cyazofamid and its main metabolite CCIM (4-chloro-5-p-tolylimidazole-2-carbonitrile) in the wine making process, which is crucial to evaluate the potential food risk of cyazofamid and CCIM. In this work, detailed study has been conducted on the evaluation of the fate of cyazofamid and its main metabolite CCIM during the wine-making process. The targeted compounds cyazofamid and CCIM were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and processing procedure including washing, peeling, fermentation, and clarification. Results showed that residues of cyazofamid and CCIM decreased significantly in wine processing. The dissipation of cyazofamid in the fermentation process followed the first-order of kinetics, and the half-life of cyazofamid was 46.2–63.0 h, whereas, the residues of CCIM, in the three treatments, decreased with time elapse. The processing factors (PFs) were all less than one in different processing processes, and the PFs ranges of cyazofamid and CCIM were 0.003–0.025 and 0.039–0.067 in three treatments in the overall process. The outcome indicated that the whole process could significantly reduce the residues of cyazofamid and CCIM in red and white wines. The results might provide more precise risk assessments of cyazofamid in the wine-making process. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyazofamid; CCIM; grape wine; procession cyazofamid; CCIM; grape wine; procession
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Q.; Wei, S.; Liu, N.; Gu, Z. The Dissipation of Cyazofamid and Its Main Metabolite CCIM during Wine-Making Process. Molecules 2020, 25, 777.

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