Next Article in Journal
The Molecular and Pathophysiological Functions of Members of the LNX/PDZRN E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Family
Next Article in Special Issue
Chemical Composition and Bioactive Characterisation of Impatiens walleriana
Previous Article in Journal
Application 2D Descriptors and Artificial Neural Networks for Beta-Glucosidase Inhibitors Screening
Article

Changes in Intestinal Permeability Ex Vivo and Immune Cell Activation by Three Commonly Used Emulsifiers

1
The Diabetes and Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 20213 Malmö, Sweden
2
Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, 22387 Lund, Sweden
3
Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lillian Barros and Raffaele Capasso
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5943; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245943
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Additives in Food III)
Food additives such as emulsifiers are used in increasing quantities in the food industry. The aim of this study was to compare three different emulsifiers (polysorbate 80 (P80), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and β-lactoglobulin (β-lac) with regards to their effect on the stimulation of immune cells and intestinal permeability. The immune stimulatory effects were studied in the myeloid cell line MUTZ-3-cells, while the change in intestinal permeability was studied in the Caco-2 cell line and ex vivo in the Ussing chamber system using small intestinal fragments from rats. The tested concentrations of the emulsifiers ranged from 0.02% up to 1%, which are concentrations commonly used in the food industry. The results showed that P80 affected both the myeloid cells and the intestinal permeability more than CMC (p < 0.05) and β-lac (p < 0.05) at the highest concentration. CMC was found to neither affect the permeability in the intestine nor the MUTZ-3 cells, while β-lac changed the permeability in the total part of the small intestine in rats. These findings indicate that P80 might be more cytotoxic compared to the other two emulsifiers. View Full-Text
Keywords: food emulsifiers; ussing chambers; caco-2; intestinal permeability; polysorbate 80; carboxymethyl cellulose; beta-lactoglobulin; TEER; dendritic cell activation food emulsifiers; ussing chambers; caco-2; intestinal permeability; polysorbate 80; carboxymethyl cellulose; beta-lactoglobulin; TEER; dendritic cell activation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Oscarsson, E.; Lindberg, T.; Zeller, K.S.; Lindstedt, M.; Agardh, D.; Håkansson, Å.; Östbring, K. Changes in Intestinal Permeability Ex Vivo and Immune Cell Activation by Three Commonly Used Emulsifiers. Molecules 2020, 25, 5943. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245943

AMA Style

Oscarsson E, Lindberg T, Zeller KS, Lindstedt M, Agardh D, Håkansson Å, Östbring K. Changes in Intestinal Permeability Ex Vivo and Immune Cell Activation by Three Commonly Used Emulsifiers. Molecules. 2020; 25(24):5943. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245943

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oscarsson, Elin, Tim Lindberg, Kathrin S. Zeller, Malin Lindstedt, Daniel Agardh, Åsa Håkansson, and Karolina Östbring. 2020. "Changes in Intestinal Permeability Ex Vivo and Immune Cell Activation by Three Commonly Used Emulsifiers" Molecules 25, no. 24: 5943. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245943

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop