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Sol–Gel Entrapped Lewis Acids as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production

Department of Chemical Engineering, Ariel University, Kyriat-ha-Mada, Ariel 4070000, Israel
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5936;
Received: 26 October 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
Replacing fossil fuels with biodiesel enables the emission of greenhouse gases to be decreased and reduces dependence on fossil fuels in countries with poor natural resources. Biodiesel can be produced by an esterification reaction between free fatty acids (FFAs) and methanol or by transesterification of triglycerides from oils. Both reactions require homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis. Production of biodiesel catalyzed by heterogeneous catalysts seems to be the preferred route, enabling easy product separation. As we have previously shown, the Lewis acids AlCl3 and BF3 can serve as highly efficient catalysts under ultrasonic activation. The present study focused on the development of oleic acid (OA) esterification with methanol by the same catalysts immobilized in silica matrices using the sol–gel synthesis route. During the course of immobilization, AlCl3 converts to AlCl3 × 6H2O (aluminite) and BF3 is hydrolyzed with the production of B2O3. The immobilized catalysts can be reused or involved in a continuous process. The possibility of biodiesel production using immobilized catalysts under ultrasonic activation is shown for the conversion of FFAs into biodiesel in batch and continuous mode. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lewis acids; sol–gel; biodiesel; free fatty acids Lewis acids; sol–gel; biodiesel; free fatty acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kolet, M.; Atrash, M.; Molina, K.; Zerbib, D.; Albo, Y.; Nakonechny, F.; Nisnevitch, M. Sol–Gel Entrapped Lewis Acids as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production. Molecules 2020, 25, 5936.

AMA Style

Kolet M, Atrash M, Molina K, Zerbib D, Albo Y, Nakonechny F, Nisnevitch M. Sol–Gel Entrapped Lewis Acids as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production. Molecules. 2020; 25(24):5936.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kolet, Mirit, Melad Atrash, Karen Molina, Daniel Zerbib, Yael Albo, Faina Nakonechny, and Marina Nisnevitch. 2020. "Sol–Gel Entrapped Lewis Acids as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production" Molecules 25, no. 24: 5936.

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