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Article

X-ray and Thermal Analysis of Selected Drugs Containing Acetaminophen

1
Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9, 40007 Katowice, Poland
2
Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40007 Katowice, Poland
3
Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwesytecka 4, 40007 Katowice, Poland
4
Institute of Neuroimmunology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84510 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Materazzic
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5909; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245909
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 13 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Chemistry in Europe II)
Studies carried out by X-ray and thermal analysis confirmed that acetaminophen (paracetamol), declared by the manufacturers as an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API), was present in all studied medicinal drugs. Positions of diffraction lines (2θ angles) of the studied drugs were consistent with standards for acetaminophen, available in the ICDD PDF database Release 2008. |Δ2θ| values were lower than 0.2°, confirming the authenticity of the studied drugs. Also, the values of interplanar distances dhkl for the examined samples were consistent with those present in the ICDD. Presence of acetaminophen crystalising in the monoclinic system (form I) was confirmed. Various line intensities for API were observed in the obtained diffraction patterns, indicating presence of the preferred orientation of the crystallites in the examined samples. Thermal analysis of the studied substances confirmed the results obtained by X-ray analysis. Drugs containing only acetaminophen as an API have melting point close to that of pure acetaminophen. It was found that presence of other active and auxiliary substances affected the shapes and positions of endothermal peaks significantly. A broadening of endothermal peaks and their shift towards lower temperatures were observed accompanying an increase in the contents of additional substances being “impurities” in relation to the API. The results obtained by a combination of the two methods, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TGA), may be useful in determination of abnormalities which can occur in pharmaceutical preparations, e.g., for distinguishing original drugs and forged products, detection of the presence of a proper polymorphic form or too low content of the active substance in the investigated drug. View Full-Text
Keywords: paracetamol; drugs; X-ray diffraction; phase analysis; thermal analysis paracetamol; drugs; X-ray diffraction; phase analysis; thermal analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jendrzejewska, I.; Goryczka, T.; Pietrasik, E.; Klimontko, J.; Jampilek, J. X-ray and Thermal Analysis of Selected Drugs Containing Acetaminophen. Molecules 2020, 25, 5909. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245909

AMA Style

Jendrzejewska I, Goryczka T, Pietrasik E, Klimontko J, Jampilek J. X-ray and Thermal Analysis of Selected Drugs Containing Acetaminophen. Molecules. 2020; 25(24):5909. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245909

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jendrzejewska, Izabela, Tomasz Goryczka, Ewa Pietrasik, Joanna Klimontko, and Josef Jampilek. 2020. "X-ray and Thermal Analysis of Selected Drugs Containing Acetaminophen" Molecules 25, no. 24: 5909. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245909

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