Next Article in Journal
Application of Covalent Organic Porous Polymers-Functionalized Basalt Fibers for in-Tube Solid-Phase Microextraction
Next Article in Special Issue
Insight into the Reaction of Alexidine with Sodium Hypochlorite: A Potential Error in Endodontic Treatment
Previous Article in Journal
Metal Nanoparticles for Electrochemical Sensing: Progress and Challenges in the Clinical Transition of Point-of-Care Testing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Permeation of β-Lactamase Inhibitors through the General Porins of Gram-Negative Bacteria
 
 
Review

Comprehensive Review on Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes and Treatment

Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Diego Muñoz-Torrero and Roman Dembinski
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5789; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245789
Received: 5 November 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 6 December 2020 / Published: 8 December 2020
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a disorder that causes degeneration of the cells in the brain and it is the main cause of dementia, which is characterized by a decline in thinking and independence in personal daily activities. AD is considered a multifactorial disease: two main hypotheses were proposed as a cause for AD, cholinergic and amyloid hypotheses. Additionally, several risk factors such as increasing age, genetic factors, head injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and environmental factors play a role in the disease. Currently, there are only two classes of approved drugs to treat AD, including inhibitors to cholinesterase enzyme and antagonists to N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA), which are effective only in treating the symptoms of AD, but do not cure or prevent the disease. Nowadays, the research is focusing on understanding AD pathology by targeting several mechanisms, such as abnormal tau protein metabolism, β-amyloid, inflammatory response, and cholinergic and free radical damage, aiming to develop successful treatments that are capable of stopping or modifying the course of AD. This review discusses currently available drugs and future theories for the development of new therapies for AD, such as disease-modifying therapeutics (DMT), chaperones, and natural compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegeneration; β-amyloid peptide; tau protein; risk factors; disease-modifying therapy; chaperons; heat shock proteins Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegeneration; β-amyloid peptide; tau protein; risk factors; disease-modifying therapy; chaperons; heat shock proteins
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Breijyeh, Z.; Karaman, R. Comprehensive Review on Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes and Treatment. Molecules 2020, 25, 5789. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245789

AMA Style

Breijyeh Z, Karaman R. Comprehensive Review on Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes and Treatment. Molecules. 2020; 25(24):5789. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245789

Chicago/Turabian Style

Breijyeh, Zeinab, and Rafik Karaman. 2020. "Comprehensive Review on Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes and Treatment" Molecules 25, no. 24: 5789. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245789

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop