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Article

Metabolome-Based Discrimination Analysis of Shallot Landraces and Bulb Onion Cultivars Associated with Differences in the Amino Acid and Flavonoid Profiles

1
Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Aswan University, Aswan 81528, Egypt
2
Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan
4
Institute of Food Sciences and Technologies, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., 1-1 Suzukichō, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-8681, Kanagawa, Japan
5
Laboratory of Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Kasuya, Fukuoka 811-2307, Japan
6
Department of Agronomy, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Trauqui, Gialam, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
7
Laboratory of Vegetable Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed.
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5300; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225300
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 4 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alliums: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Biological Activities)
Shallot landraces and varieties are considered an important genetic resource for Allium breeding due to their high contents of several functional metabolites. Aiming to provide new genetic materials for the development of a novel bulb onion cultivar derived from intraspecific hybrids with useful agronomic traits from shallots, the metabolic profiles in the bulbs of 8 Indonesian shallot landraces and 7 short-day and 3 long-day bulb onion cultivars were established using LC–Q-TOF-MS/MS. Principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and dendrogram clustering analysis showed two major groups; group I contained all shallot landraces and group II contained all bulb onion cultivars, indicating that shallots exhibited a distinct metabolic profile in comparison with bulb onions. Variable importance in the projection and Spearman’s rank correlation indicated that free and conjugated amino acids, flavonoids (especially metabolites having flavonol aglycone), and anthocyanins, as well as organic acids, were among the top metabolite variables that were highly associated with shallot landraces. The absolute quantification of 21 amino acids using conventional HPLC analysis showed high contents in shallots rather than in bulb onions. The present study indicated that shallots reprogrammed their metabolism toward a high accumulation of amino acids and flavonoids as an adaptive mechanism in extremely hot tropical environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallots and onions; amino acids; flavonoids; metabolome profiles shallots and onions; amino acids; flavonoids; metabolome profiles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdelrahman, M.; Ariyanti, N.A.; Sawada, Y.; Tsuji, F.; Hirata, S.; Hang, T.T.M.; Okamoto, M.; Yamada, Y.; Tsugawa, H.; Hirai, M.Y.; Shigyo, M. Metabolome-Based Discrimination Analysis of Shallot Landraces and Bulb Onion Cultivars Associated with Differences in the Amino Acid and Flavonoid Profiles. Molecules 2020, 25, 5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225300

AMA Style

Abdelrahman M, Ariyanti NA, Sawada Y, Tsuji F, Hirata S, Hang TTM, Okamoto M, Yamada Y, Tsugawa H, Hirai MY, Shigyo M. Metabolome-Based Discrimination Analysis of Shallot Landraces and Bulb Onion Cultivars Associated with Differences in the Amino Acid and Flavonoid Profiles. Molecules. 2020; 25(22):5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225300

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdelrahman, Mostafa, Nur A. Ariyanti, Yuji Sawada, Fumitada Tsuji, Sho Hirata, Tran T.M. Hang, Mami Okamoto, Yutaka Yamada, Hiroshi Tsugawa, Masami Y. Hirai, and Masayoshi Shigyo. 2020. "Metabolome-Based Discrimination Analysis of Shallot Landraces and Bulb Onion Cultivars Associated with Differences in the Amino Acid and Flavonoid Profiles" Molecules 25, no. 22: 5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225300

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