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Impact of Brewing Methods on Total Phenolic Content (TPC) in Various Types of Coffee

Department of Bromatology, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D Street, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Angela Cardinali
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5274;
Received: 4 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Food Constituents)
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, both in Europe, where its consumption is highest, and on other continents. It provides many compounds, including phenolic compounds. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of various brewing methods on the total phenolic content (TPC) in the infusion. Research material comprised commercially available coffees: Instant Arabica and Robusta, freshly ground Arabica and Robusta (immediately prior to the analysis), ground Arabica and Robusta, decaffeinated Arabica, and green Arabica and Robusta. The following preparation methods were used: Pouring hot water over coffee grounds or instant coffee, preparing coffee in a percolator and using a coffee machine. Additional variables which were employed were water temperature (90 or 100 °C) and its type (filtered or unfiltered). In order to determine the impact of examined factors, 225 infusion were prepared. Total phenolic content was determined by the spectrophotometric method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained results were expressed in mg gallic acid (GAE) per 100 g of brewed coffee. The highest value was obtained for 100% Arabica ground coffee prepared in a coffee percolator using unfiltered water at a temperature of 100 °C: 657.3 ± 23 mg GAE/100 g of infusion. High values were also observed for infusions prepared in a coffee machine, where the highest TPC value was 363.8 ± 28 mg GAE/100 g for ground Arabica. In turn, the lowest TPC was obtained for Arabica green coffee in opaque packaging, brewed with filtered water at a temperature of 100 °C: 19.5 ± 1 mg GAE/100 g of infusion. No significant effect of temperature and water type on the TPC within one type of coffee was observed. Due to its high content of phenolic compounds, Arabica coffee brewed in a coffee percolator should be the most popular choice for coffee drinkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arabica; Robusta; coffee brewing; total phenolic content Arabica; Robusta; coffee brewing; total phenolic content
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olechno, E.; Puścion-Jakubik, A.; Markiewicz-Żukowska, R.; Socha, K. Impact of Brewing Methods on Total Phenolic Content (TPC) in Various Types of Coffee. Molecules 2020, 25, 5274.

AMA Style

Olechno E, Puścion-Jakubik A, Markiewicz-Żukowska R, Socha K. Impact of Brewing Methods on Total Phenolic Content (TPC) in Various Types of Coffee. Molecules. 2020; 25(22):5274.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olechno, Ewa, Anna Puścion-Jakubik, Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska, and Katarzyna Socha. 2020. "Impact of Brewing Methods on Total Phenolic Content (TPC) in Various Types of Coffee" Molecules 25, no. 22: 5274.

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