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Article

Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Activity of Compounds in PC12 Cells from Sunflower Seeds

1
Graduate School of Advanced Technology and Science, Tokushima University, 2-1 Minamijosanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506, Japan
2
Graduate School of Technology, Industrial and Social Sciences, Tokushima University, 2-1 Minamijosanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8513, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4748; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204748
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 30 September 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
In the current super-aging society, the establishment of methods for prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an urgent task. One of the causes of AD is thought to be a decrease in the revel of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain. Compounds showing NGF-mimicking activity and NGF-enhancing activity have been examined as possible agents for improving symptoms. In the present study, sunflower seed extract was found to have neurite outgrowth-promoting activity, which is an NGF-enhancing activity, in PC12 cells. To investigate neurite outgrowth-promoting compounds from sunflower seed extract, bioassay-guided purification was carried out. The purified active fraction was obtained by liquid-liquid partition followed by some column chromatographies. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the purified active fraction indicated that the fraction was a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, with β-sitosterol being the main component. Neurite outgrowth-promoting activities of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and cholesterol were evaluated in PC12 cells. β-Sitosterol and stigmasterol showed the strongest activity of the four sterol compounds (β-sitosterol ≈ stigmasterol > campesterol > cholesterol), and cholesterol did not show any activity. The results indicated that β-sitosterol was the major component responsible for the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity of sunflower seeds. Results of immunostaining also showed that promotion by β-sitosterol of neurite formation induced by NGF was accompanied by neurofilament expression. β-Sitosterol, which showed NGF-enhancing activity, might be a candidate ingredient in food for prevention of AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; sunflower seed; NGF; β-sitosterol; neurite outgrowth-promoting activity Alzheimer’s disease; sunflower seed; NGF; β-sitosterol; neurite outgrowth-promoting activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koga, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sakuradani, E.; Tai, A. Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Activity of Compounds in PC12 Cells from Sunflower Seeds. Molecules 2020, 25, 4748. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204748

AMA Style

Koga T, Sakamoto T, Sakuradani E, Tai A. Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Activity of Compounds in PC12 Cells from Sunflower Seeds. Molecules. 2020; 25(20):4748. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204748

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koga, Takeru, Takaiku Sakamoto, Eiji Sakuradani, and Akihiro Tai. 2020. "Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Activity of Compounds in PC12 Cells from Sunflower Seeds" Molecules 25, no. 20: 4748. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204748

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