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Open AccessArticle

Developments toward the Implementation of 44Sc Production at a Medical Cyclotron

1
Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland
2
Center of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland
3
Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory of High Energy Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anne Roivainen and Xiang-Guo Li
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4706; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204706
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 26 September 2020 / Accepted: 29 September 2020 / Published: 14 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiopharmaceuticals for PET Imaging - Issue B)
44Sc has favorable properties for cancer diagnosis using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) making it a promising candidate for application in nuclear medicine. The implementation of its production with existing compact medical cyclotrons would mean the next essential milestone in the development of this radionuclide. While the production and application of 44Sc has been comprehensively investigated, the development of specific targetry and irradiation methods is of paramount importance. As a result, the target was optimized for the 44Ca(p,n)44Sc nuclear reaction using CaO instead of CaCO3, ensuring decrease in target radioactive degassing during irradiation and increased radionuclidic yield. Irradiations were performed at the research cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (~11 MeV, 50 µA, 90 min) and the medical cyclotron at the University of Bern (~13 MeV, 10 µA, 240 min), with yields varying from 200 MBq to 16 GBq. The development of targetry, chemical separation as well as the practical issues and implications of irradiations, are analyzed and discussed. As a proof-of-concept study, the 44Sc produced at the medical cyclotron was used for a preclinical study using a previously developed albumin-binding prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand. This work demonstrates the feasibility to produce 44Sc with high yields and radionuclidic purity using a medical cyclotron, equipped with a commercial solid target station. View Full-Text
Keywords: scandium-44; ion exchange chromatography; medical cyclotron scandium-44; ion exchange chromatography; medical cyclotron
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MDPI and ACS Style

van der Meulen, N.P.; Hasler, R.; Talip, Z.; Grundler, P.V.; Favaretto, C.; Umbricht, C.A.; Müller, C.; Dellepiane, G.; Carzaniga, T.S.; Braccini, S. Developments toward the Implementation of 44Sc Production at a Medical Cyclotron. Molecules 2020, 25, 4706. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204706

AMA Style

van der Meulen NP, Hasler R, Talip Z, Grundler PV, Favaretto C, Umbricht CA, Müller C, Dellepiane G, Carzaniga TS, Braccini S. Developments toward the Implementation of 44Sc Production at a Medical Cyclotron. Molecules. 2020; 25(20):4706. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204706

Chicago/Turabian Style

van der Meulen, Nicholas P.; Hasler, Roger; Talip, Zeynep; Grundler, Pascal V.; Favaretto, Chiara; Umbricht, Christoph A.; Müller, Cristina; Dellepiane, Gaia; Carzaniga, Tommaso S.; Braccini, Saverio. 2020. "Developments toward the Implementation of 44Sc Production at a Medical Cyclotron" Molecules 25, no. 20: 4706. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204706

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