Next Article in Journal
α- and β-Substituted Metal-Free Phthalocyanines: Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties
Next Article in Special Issue
Design, Synthesis, and In Vitro Evaluation of the Photoactivatable Prodrug of the PARP Inhibitor Talazoparib
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis of Elaborate Benzofuran-2-Carboxamide Derivatives through a Combination of 8-Aminoquinoline Directed C–H Arylation and Transamidation Chemistry
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Pyridineamide Derivatives Containing a 1,2,3-Triazole Fragment as Type II c-Met Inhibitors
Open AccessArticle

New Zampanolide Mimics: Design, Synthesis, and Antiproliferative Evaluation

1
Department of Chemistry, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740, USA
2
Department of Chemistry and RCMI Cancer Research Center, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(2), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020362
Received: 26 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis and Evaluation)
Zampanolide is a promising microtubule-stabilizing agent (MSA) with a unique chemical structure. It is superior to the current clinically used MSAs due to the covalent nature of its binding to β-tubulin and high cytotoxic potency toward multidrug-resistant cancer cells. However, its further development as a viable drug candidate is hindered by its limited availability. More importantly, conversion of its chemically fragile side chain into a stabilized bioisostere is envisioned to enable zampanolide to possess more drug-like properties. As part of our ongoing project aiming to develop its mimics with a stable side chain using straightforward synthetic approaches, 2-fluorobenzyl alcohol was designed as a bioisosteric surrogate for the side chain based on its binding conformation as confirmed by the X-ray structure of tubulin complexed with zampanolide. Two new zampanolide mimics with the newly designed side chain have been successfully synthesized through a 25-step chemical transformation for each. Yamaguchi esterification and intramolecular Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons condensation were used as key reactions to construct the lactone core. The chiral centers at C17 and C18 were introduced by the Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation. Our WST-1 cell proliferation assay data in both docetaxel-resistant and docetaxel-naive prostate cancer cell lines revealed that compound 6 is the optimal mimic and the newly designed side chain can serve as a bioisostere for the chemically fragile N-acetyl hemiaminal side chain in zampanolide. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural product; anticancer agent; synthesis; zampanolide natural product; anticancer agent; synthesis; zampanolide
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, G.; Jiang, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, G.; Chen, Q.-H. New Zampanolide Mimics: Design, Synthesis, and Antiproliferative Evaluation. Molecules 2020, 25, 362.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop