L. (Visnaga daucoides
Gaertn., Family Apiaceae), also known as Khella Baldi or toothpick weed, is an annual or biennial herb indigenous to the Mediterranean region of North Africa, Asia, and Europe. The plant is known to have been used in traditional medicine a long time ago. Nowadays, it is used in modern medicine to treat many aliments such as renal colic and coronary insufficiency, and is used as an antioxidant, antifungal, and antibacterial, with a larvicidal effect on mosquito larvae. Peer-reviewed studies show that these pharmacological activities are due its valuable chemical constituents that include mainly essential oil, polyphenolic compounds including flavonoids, as well as γ-pyrones, represented mainly by khellin and visnagin. Its essential oil is reported to have antiviral, antibacterial, and larvicidal effects, while its flavonoid content is responsible for its antioxidant activity. Its γ-pyrone content has a powerful effect on facilitating the passage of kidney stones and relieving renal colic, in addition to having a relaxant effect on smooth muscle including that of the coronary arteries. The current review represents the progress in research on A
in terms of either its chemistry or biological activities. This review represents scientific support material for the use of the plant by the pharmaceutical industry.
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