|Immunomodulatory||Water extract||RAW264.7 (murine macrophage cell), U937 (human promonocytic cell)||50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL||Maintained cluster formation of RAW264.7 cells even after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment.|
Downregulated the phagocytic uptake of FITC-labeled dextran.
Upregulated cell-cell interactions by decreasing migration of cells and enhancing CD-29-mediated cell-cell adhesion and the surface levels of adhesion molecules and costimulatory molecules linked to macrophage stimulation, as seen in upregulation of reaction oxygen species (ROS) release.
Suppressed an alteration in the membrane level of macrophages (phagocytic uptake and morphological changes).
| ||Ethanol extract||IL-2-independent T-lymphocyte||0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.9, and 1.0, mg/mL||Inhibited activation and proliferation of IL-2-independent T-lymphocyte|||
|Anti-inflammatory||Water extract||LPS-stimulated macrophages, arachidonic acid, or croton oil-induced mouse ear edema models||0–400 μg/mL,|
|Inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 and suppressed the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS.|
Curative effect in an in vivo PGE2-based inflammatory symptoms model induced by arachidonic acid.
| ||Ethanol extract||TPA- or arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, hot plate, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in rats||100, 200, or 400 mg/kg||Inhibited inflammation of paw edema, ear inflammation, and dye leakage in the vasculature using various animal models including acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema, arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema, and carrageenan-induced paw.|||
| ||Five novel compounds||Human myeloma THP-1 cells||25 μM||Showed inhibitory activity on production of the inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β.|||
| ||Cyclopentene derivatives||RAW264.7 cells||12.5, 25, 50 μg/mL||Suppressed the production of NO and PGE2.|||
|Anti-cancer||Naphthoquinones||MDA-BB-231, MCF7, and A549 cells||0–30 μM||Inhibited growth of cancer cell lines and STAT3 phosphorylation activity.|||
| ||Water extract||Estrogen receptor (ER)+ human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cell line||0.05, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5 mg/mL||Exhibited dose-dependent growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells.|||
| ||β-lapachone||A549 human lung carcinoma cells|| ||Inhibited growth of A549 cells and telomerase activity; induced apoptosis by reducing the expression of Bcl-2, increasing the expression of Bax, and activating caspase-3 and caspase-9.|||
| ||β-lapachone||HepG2 hepatoma cell line|| ||Inhibited the activity of HepG2 by inducing apoptosis; downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, upregulation of Bax expression; induced apoptosis by activating caspase-3 and caspase-9 and degrading poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein.|||
| ||Methanol extract||Human tumor cell lines MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa, and HepG2; porcine liver primary cells (PLP2).||GI50 values: 110.76 ± 5.33 µg/mL (MCF-7), 76.67 ± 7.09 µg/mL (NCI-H460), 93.18 ± 1.46 µg/mL (HeLa), 83.61 ± 6.61 µg/mL (HepG2), and >400 µg/mL (PLP2).||Showed cytotoxic effects on MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa, and HepG2 cells.|||
|Antinociceptive||Ethanol extract||Acetic acid-induced writhing response in rats||100, 200, or 400 mg/kg||Increased the pain threshold in a mouse model when assessed through the hot plate test and inhibited the number of writhes compared to controls in the acetic acid-induced writhing responses mouse model.|||
|Osteoarthritis||Ethanol extract||RAW264.7 cells and chondrosarcoma cell line (SW1353); monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis in rats||75, 150, and 300 μg/mL||Showed a chondroprotective effect by preventing cartilage degradation through targeting of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways in macrophage and chondrocyte cells.|
Downregulated MMP2, MMP9, and MMP13 in a PMA-induced, dose-dependent manner; no effect on the gene expression of COL2A1 and CHSY1.
|Colitis||Water extract||RAW264.7 cells|
Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice
|100, 300, 900, and 2700 μg/mL|
2 mg/day, a total of 5 days
|Activated DC to produce immunosuppressive IL10; upregulated anti-inflammatory Th2 and Foxp3+ Treg cells in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and downregulated pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells.|
By upregulating type II T-assisted immune response, weight loss and inflammation of colon tissue were downregulated in DSS-induced colitis mice.
|Antioxidant||Methanol extract|| ||EC50 values: 0.68 ± 0.03 (DPPH scavenging activity), 0.27 ± 0.01 (Reducing power), 0.23 ± 0.04 (β-carotene bleaching inhibition), 0.14 ± 0.01 (thiobarbituric acid Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) inhibition).||Showed the highest antioxidant activity, which may be related to its total phenol content.|||
| ||Methanol, butanol, and water extracts||H2O2-induced NIH3T3 cells||0–2 mg/mL ||Regenerated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities; enhanced the concentration of glutathione in the cell; protected proteins from oxidative attack of H2O2, reduced formation of malondialdehyde in the cell, and protected NIH3T3 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative stress.|||
| ||Volatile constituents|| ||5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg/mL||Displayed dose-dependent activity in antioxidant assays|||
| ||Phenylpropanoid glycosides|| ||Compound 5 had the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 0.12 µM||Had inhibitory effects on cytochrome CYP3A4 enzyme|||
|Anti-obesity||n-butanol extract||Ovariectomized (OVX) mice. 3T3-L1 cells||A total of 16 weeks||Preventing the accumulation of adipocyte in mice, weight loss and fat mass ↓ in ovariectomized mice.|||
| ||Ethanol extract||Triton WR-1339-treated Wistar rats||A total of 24,700 kJ/kg energy||Decreased postprandial triglycerides in rats given a fatty meal.|||
|Anti-allergic||Five novel compounds||RBL-2H3 cells||100 μM||Inhibited release of β-hexosaminidase of the allergy marker.|||
|Antidepressant||Ethanol extract||Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice.||100 mg/kg, p.o. (in the FST) and 10–300 mg/kg, p.o. (in the TST)||Produced antidepressant effects in the tail suspension test and forced swimming test.|||
|Antiplatelet||Methanol extract||Rabbit platelets and cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)||10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL||Reduced platelet aggregation by inhibiting arachidonic acid release and ERK1/2 MAPK activation.|||