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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of GD1a Ganglioside-Expressing Bacterial Strains on Murine Norovirus Infectivity

1
Department of Frontier Sciences for Advanced Environment, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-06, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan
2
Division of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North 13 West 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-06, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan
4
Department of Health Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara-Minami, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Walter Randazzo
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4084; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184084
Received: 10 August 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 September 2020 / Published: 7 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds to Prevent and Control Foodborne and Waterborne Viruses)
In this study, we investigated the impact of GD1a-expressing bacterial strains on the infectivity of murine norovirus (MNV). Eligible bacterial strains were screened from a sewage sample using flow cytometry, and their genetic sequences of 16S rRNA were determined. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to analyze the binding between bacteria and MNV particles, and the plaque assay was used to assess the effects of GD1a-positive and negative strains on MNV infectivity. The result from ELISA shows that MNV particles are able to bind to both GD1a-positive and negative bacterial strains, but the binding to the GD1a-positive strain is more significant. The infectivity assay result further shows that the MNV infectious titer declined with an increasing concentration of GD1a-positive bacteria. The addition of anti-GD1a antibody in the infectivity assay led to the recovery of the MNV infectious titer, further confirming that the binding between MNV particles and bacterial GD1a ganglioside compromises MNV infectivity. Our findings highlight the role indigenous bacteria may play in the lifecycle of waterborne enteric viruses as well as the potential of exploiting them for virus transmission intervention and water safety improvement. View Full-Text
Keywords: GD1a ganglioside; murine norovirus; specific virus–cell interaction; virus environmental fate; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; receptor glycan GD1a ganglioside; murine norovirus; specific virus–cell interaction; virus environmental fate; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; receptor glycan
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Zhu, Y.; Kawai, H.; Hashiba, S.; Amarasiri, M.; Kitajima, M.; Okabe, S.; Sano, D. The Effect of GD1a Ganglioside-Expressing Bacterial Strains on Murine Norovirus Infectivity. Molecules 2020, 25, 4084.

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