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Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Carotenoids of Dried Loquat Fruit cv. ‘Algar’ Affected by Freeze-, Convective-, Vacuum-Microwave- and Combined-Drying Methods

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Departamento Economía Agroambiental, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO), Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
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Departamento Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Grupo Calidad y Seguridad Alimentaria, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO), Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
3
Department of Plant Sciences and Microbiology, Group Plant Production and Technology, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO), Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
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Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37a Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland
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Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3643; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163643
Received: 14 July 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 6 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
The effect of different drying techniques (freeze, convective, vacuum-microwave and combined drying) on the drying kinetics, the phytochemical compounds and sensory characteristics in loquat cultivar ‘Algar’ was studied. The convective drying resulted in the highest amount of total hydroxycinnamic acids (5077 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), with 3-caffeoyl quinic acid and 5-caffeoyl quinic acid being the greatest carotenoids. The highest values of total carotenoids were obtained by the freeze-drying technique (2601 mg/kg ww), followed by all convective treatments and vacuum-microwave at 360 W. The highest carotenoid was β-carotene. The ABTS+• (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (Ferric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Power) values ranged from 2.04 up to 3.27 mmol Trolox/100 g ww, and from 1.89 up to 2.29 mmol Trolox/100 g ww, respectively. As expected, the color difference of freeze-dried samples was the lowest (7.06), similar to combined drying conditions (9.63), whilst the highest value was found after convective drying (37.0). All treatments were sensory acceptable (no off-flavors). However, still, further research is needed to fully optimize these studied drying treatments because the freeze-dried sample still had higher carotenoid content and better instrumental color parameters. Although recently the impact of microwave drying has been studied, this is the first work comparing phytochemical composition of loquat fruit under the different drying methods mentioned above. View Full-Text
Keywords: Eriobotrya japonica Lindl; convective; vacuum-microwave; bioactive compounds; antioxidant capacity Eriobotrya japonica Lindl; convective; vacuum-microwave; bioactive compounds; antioxidant capacity
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MDPI and ACS Style

López-Lluch, D.B.; Cano-Lamadrid, M.; Hernández, F.; Zimmer, A.; Lech, K.; Figiel, A.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á.A.; Wojdyło, A. Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Carotenoids of Dried Loquat Fruit cv. ‘Algar’ Affected by Freeze-, Convective-, Vacuum-Microwave- and Combined-Drying Methods. Molecules 2020, 25, 3643. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163643

AMA Style

López-Lluch DB, Cano-Lamadrid M, Hernández F, Zimmer A, Lech K, Figiel A, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA, Wojdyło A. Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Carotenoids of Dried Loquat Fruit cv. ‘Algar’ Affected by Freeze-, Convective-, Vacuum-Microwave- and Combined-Drying Methods. Molecules. 2020; 25(16):3643. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163643

Chicago/Turabian Style

López-Lluch, David B.; Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Hernández, Francisca; Zimmer, Aleksandra; Lech, Krzysztof; Figiel, Adam; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A.; Wojdyło, Aneta. 2020. "Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Carotenoids of Dried Loquat Fruit cv. ‘Algar’ Affected by Freeze-, Convective-, Vacuum-Microwave- and Combined-Drying Methods" Molecules 25, no. 16: 3643. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163643

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