Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Other Biological Properties of Pompia Juice
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09100 Cagliari, Italy
Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Medicine, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Department of Surgical Sciences, Molecular Biology Service, University of Cagliari, 09100 Cagliari, Italy
PPD Pharmaceutical Industries, 37121 Verona, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3186; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143186
Received: 15 June 2020 / Revised: 3 July 2020 / Accepted: 9 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Pompia is a Citrus species belonging to Sardinian endemic biodiversity. Health benefits were attributed to its flavedo rind extracts and essential oils while the juice qualities have never been investigated. In this paper, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other biological properties of Pompia juice were studied. A combined LCMS/electrochemical/biological approach was used to clarify a still debated phylogeny of this species and to explain the role of its juice phenolic compounds. A closer phylogenetic relationship with lemon and citron, rather than oranges was suggested. Sensors-based electrochemical measures, together with LCMS qualitative and quantitative analyses, revealed a high contribution of ascorbic acid and phenolics with low redox potential, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, diosmin, and diosmetin 6,8-diglucoside, to antioxidant capacity. The biological assays demonstrated a marked effect of low concentration of Pompia juice against reactive oxygen species (ROS) starting from 50 µg mL−1, and a moderate capacity to reduce ROS damages on cell membrane. Treatments with Pompia juice also resulted in a significant reduction (20%) of the metabolic activity of SW48 colon cancer cells. Lastly, MIC, MBC, and MBIC antimicrobial assays demonstrated that Pompia and lemon juices have inhibitory and antibiofilm effects against the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis.