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Open AccessArticle

Insights on the Extraction Performance of Alkanediols and Glycerol: Using Juglans regia L. Leaves as a Source of Bioactive Compounds

1
CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, Complexo de Laboratórios Tecnológicos, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering—Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
3
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112497
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 20 May 2020 / Accepted: 24 May 2020 / Published: 27 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Metabolites in Plant Foods)
Glycerol and alkanediols are being studied as alternative solvents to extract phytochemicals from plant material, often as hydrogen bond donors in deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Many of those alcohols are liquid at room temperature, yet studies of their use as extraction solvents are scarce. In this work, glycerol and a series of alkanediols (1,2-ethanediol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,2-pentanediol, 1,5-pentanediol, and 1,2-hexanediol) were studied for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Juglans regia L. leaves, a rich source of this class of bioactive compounds. The extraction yield was quantified, and the bioactivity of both extracts and pure solvents was evaluated by measuring the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. The solvents showing the best combined results were 1,2 and 1,3-propanediol, as their extracts presented a high amount of phenolic compounds, close to the results of ethanol, and similar cytotoxicity against cervical carcinoma cells, with no impact on non-tumor porcine liver cells in the studied concentration range. On the other hand, none of the extracts (and solvents) presented anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, the results obtained in this work contribute to the study of alternative solvents that could potentially be used also as formulation media, highlighting the importance of walnut leaves as a source of bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkanediols; glycerol; phenolic compounds; Juglans regia L.; cytotoxicity; anti-inflammatory activity; solvents alkanediols; glycerol; phenolic compounds; Juglans regia L.; cytotoxicity; anti-inflammatory activity; solvents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vieira, V.; Calhelha, R.C.; Barros, L.; Coutinho, J.A.P.; C. F. R. Ferreira, I.; Ferreira, O. Insights on the Extraction Performance of Alkanediols and Glycerol: Using Juglans regia L. Leaves as a Source of Bioactive Compounds. Molecules 2020, 25, 2497. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112497

AMA Style

Vieira V, Calhelha RC, Barros L, Coutinho JAP, C. F. R. Ferreira I, Ferreira O. Insights on the Extraction Performance of Alkanediols and Glycerol: Using Juglans regia L. Leaves as a Source of Bioactive Compounds. Molecules. 2020; 25(11):2497. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112497

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vieira, Vanessa; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Barros, Lillian; Coutinho, João A.P.; C. F. R. Ferreira, Isabel; Ferreira, Olga. 2020. "Insights on the Extraction Performance of Alkanediols and Glycerol: Using Juglans regia L. Leaves as a Source of Bioactive Compounds" Molecules 25, no. 11: 2497. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112497

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