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Open AccessArticle

New Strategies in the Cultivation of Olive Trees and Repercussions on the Nutritional Value of the Extra Virgin Olive Oil

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80141 Napoli, Italy
2
LINFA SCARL. Via Zona Industriale Porto San Salvo, 89900 Vibo Valentia, Italy
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II, Via Federico Delpino 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy
4
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, National Research Council, Via Università 133, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
5
Department of Physics, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
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Istituto Sistemi Complessi del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISC-CNR), 00185 Rome, Italy
7
Department of Agricultural Science, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Prokopios Magiatis and Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102345
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 10 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: From Processing to Health Benefits)
The health advantages of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) are ascribed mainly to the antioxidant ability of the phenolic compounds. Secoiridoids, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, phenolic acid, and flavones, are the main nutraceutical substances of EVOO. Applications of beneficial microbes and/or their metabolites impact the plant metabolome. In this study the effects of application of selected Trichoderma strains or their effectors (secondary metabolites) on the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant potential of the EVOOs have been evaluated. For this purpose, Trichoderma virens (strain GV41) and Trichoderma harzianum (strain T22), well-known biocontrol agents, and two their metabolites harzianic acid (HA) and 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PP) were been used to treat plants of Olea europaea var. Leccino and var. Carolea. Then the nutraceutical potential of EVOO was evaluated. Total phenolic content was estimated by Folin–Ciocalteau’s assay, metabolic profile by High-Resolution Mass spectroscopy (HRMS-Orbitrap), and antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS assays. Our results showed that in the cultivation of the olive tree, T22 and its metabolites improve the nutraceutical value of the EVOOs modulating the phenolic profile and improving antioxidants activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trichoderma spp.; EVOO; secondary metabolites; phenolic identification; phenolic content; HRMS-Orbitrap; antioxidant activity Trichoderma spp.; EVOO; secondary metabolites; phenolic identification; phenolic content; HRMS-Orbitrap; antioxidant activity
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Dini, I.; Graziani, G.; Gaspari, A.; Fedele, F.L.; Sicari, A.; Vinale, F.; Cavallo, P.; Lorito, M.; Ritieni, A. New Strategies in the Cultivation of Olive Trees and Repercussions on the Nutritional Value of the Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Molecules 2020, 25, 2345.

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