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Open AccessArticle

Discerning between Two Tuscany (Italy) Ancient Apple cultivars, ‘Rotella’ and ‘Casciana’, through Polyphenolic Fingerprint and Molecular Markers

1
Department of Agriculture, Food & Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto, 80–56124 Pisa, Italy
2
Interdepartmental Research Center Nutrafood “Nutraceuticals and Food for Health”, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto, 80–56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091758
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
Ancient apple cultivars usually have higher nutraceutical value than commercial ones, but in most cases their variability in pomological traits does not allow us to discriminate among them. Fruit of two Tuscany ancient apple cultivars, ‘Casciana’ and ‘Rotella’, picked from eight different orchards (four for each cultivar) were analyzed for their pomological traits, organoleptic qualities, polyphenolic profile and antiradical activity. The effectiveness of a polyphenol-based cluster analysis was compared to molecular markers (internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and ITS2) to unequivocally discern the two apples. ‘Casciana’ and ‘Rotella’ fruit had a higher nutraceutical value than some commercial cultivars, in terms of phenolic abundance, profile and total antiradical activity. Although pedo-climatic conditions of different orchards influenced the phenolic profile of both apples, the polyphenolic discriminant analysis clearly separated the two cultivars, principally due to higher amounts of procyanidin B2, procyanidin B3 and p-coumaroylquinic acid in ‘Casciana’ than in ‘Rotella’ fruit. These three polyphenols can be used proficiently as biochemical markers for distinguishing the two apples when pomological traits cannot. Conversely, ITS1 and ITS2 polymorphism did not allow us to distinguish ‘Casciana’ from ‘Rotella’ fruit. Overall, the use of polyphenolic fingerprint might represent a valid tool to ensure the traceability of products with a high economic value. View Full-Text
Keywords: ancient cultivars; antiradical activity; apple; cluster analysis; molecular marker; organoleptic quality; pomology ancient cultivars; antiradical activity; apple; cluster analysis; molecular marker; organoleptic quality; pomology
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Lo Piccolo, E.; Viviani, A.; Guidi, L.; Remorini, D.; Massai, R.; Bernardi, R.; Landi, M. Discerning between Two Tuscany (Italy) Ancient Apple cultivars, ‘Rotella’ and ‘Casciana’, through Polyphenolic Fingerprint and Molecular Markers. Molecules 2019, 24, 1758.

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