Food quality and nutritional habits strongly influence human health status. Extensive research has been conducted to confirm that foods rich in biologically active nutrients have a positive impact on the onset and development of different pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms by which dietary compounds regulate cardiovascular function have not yet been fully clarified. A growing number of studies confirm that bioactive food components modulate various signaling pathways which are involved in heart physiology and pathology. Recent evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded RNA chains with a powerful ability to influence protein expression in the whole organism, have a significant role in the regulation of cardiovascular-related pathways. This review summarizes recent studies dealing with the impact of some biologically active nutrients like polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamins E and D, dietary fiber, or selenium on the expression of many miRNAs, which are connected with cardiovascular diseases. Current research indicates that the expression levels of many cardiovascular-related miRNAs like miRNA-21, -30 family, -34, -155, or -199 can be altered by foods and dietary supplements in various animal and human disease models. Understanding the dietary modulation of miRNAs represents, therefore, an important field for further research. The acquired knowledge may be used in personalized nutritional prevention of cardiovascular disease or the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.
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