Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) 1 and 2 are key metabolic enzymes that generate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to maintain a pool of reduced glutathione and peroxiredoxin, and produce α-ketoglutarate, a co-factor of numerous enzymes. IDH1/2
is mutated in ~70–80% of lower-grade gliomas and the majority of secondary glioblastomas. The mutant IDH1 (R132H), in addition to losing its normal catalytic activity, gains the function of producing the d-
)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Overproduction of 2-HG in cancer cells interferes with cellular metabolism and inhibits histone and DNA demethylases, which results in histone and DNA hypermethylation and the blockade of cellular differentiation. We summarize recent findings characterizing molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic alterations associated with mutated IDH1/2, and their impact on tumor microenvironment and antitumor immunity. Isoform-selective IDH inhibitors which suppress 2-HG production and induce antitumor responses in cells with IDH1
mutations were developed and validated in preclinical settings. Inhibitors of mutated IDH1/2 enzymes entered clinical trials and represent a novel drug class for targeted therapy of gliomas. We describe the development of small-molecule compounds and peptide vaccines targeting IDH-mutant gliomas and the results of their testing in preclinical and clinical studies. All those results support the translational potential of strategies targeting gliomas carrying IDH1 mutations.
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