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Article

Optimization and Formulation of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere (F-LM) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Analysis of Its Fucoxanthin Release Profile

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International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, Kuala Lumpur 53100, Malaysia
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Bioprocess and Molecular Engineering Research Unit (BPMERU), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Gombak, Kuala Lumpur 53100, Malaysia
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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta 55164, Indonesia
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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia Kuantan, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia
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Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Tower B, Persiaran MPAJ, Jalan Pandan Utama, Kuala Lumpur 55100, Malaysia
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Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Indonesia, Senayan, Jakarta Pusat 10340, Indonesia
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Chairman, Indonesia Halal Lifestyle Foundation, Jakarta 10230, Indonesia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Benoît Schoefs
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050947
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
Fucoxanthin has interesting anticancer activity, but is insoluble in water, hindering its use as a drug. Microencapsulation is used as a technique for improving drug delivery. This study aimed to formulate fucoxanthin-loaded microspheres (F-LM) for anticancer treatment of H1299 cancer cell lines and optimize particle size (PS) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). Using response surface methodology (RSM), a face centered central composite design (FCCCD) was designed with three factors: Polyvinylalcohol (PVA), poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and fucoxanthin concentration. F-LM was produced using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. The F-LM were characterized for release profile, release kinetics, and degradation pattern. Optimal F-LM PS and EE of 9.18 µm and 33.09%, respectively, with good surface morphology, were achieved from a 0.5% (w/v) PVA, 6.0% (w/v) PLGA, 200 µg/mL fucoxanthin formulation at a homogenization speed of 20,500 rpm. PVA concentration was the most significant factor (p < 0.05) affecting PS. Meanwhile, EE was significantly affected by interaction between the three factors: PVA, PLGA, and fucoxanthin. In vitro release curve showed fucoxanthin had a high burst release (38.3%) at the first hour, followed by a sustained release stage reaching (79.1%) within 2 months. Release kinetics followed a diffusion pattern predominantly controlled by the Higuchi model. Biodegradability studies based on surface morphology changes on the surface of the F-LM, show that morphology changed within the first hour, and F-LM completely degraded within 2 months. RSM under FCCCD design improved the difference between the lowest and highest responses, with good correlation between observed and predicted values for PS and EE of F-LM. View Full-Text
Keywords: fucoxanthin; release profile; response surface methodology; microsphere; microencapsulation fucoxanthin; release profile; response surface methodology; microsphere; microencapsulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jaswir, I.; Noviendri, D.; Taher, M.; Mohamed, F.; Octavianti, F.; Lestari, W.; Mukti, A.G.; Nirwandar, S.; Hamad Almansori, B.B. Optimization and Formulation of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere (F-LM) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Analysis of Its Fucoxanthin Release Profile. Molecules 2019, 24, 947. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050947

AMA Style

Jaswir I, Noviendri D, Taher M, Mohamed F, Octavianti F, Lestari W, Mukti AG, Nirwandar S, Hamad Almansori BB. Optimization and Formulation of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere (F-LM) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Analysis of Its Fucoxanthin Release Profile. Molecules. 2019; 24(5):947. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050947

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jaswir, Irwandi, Dedi Noviendri, Muhammad Taher, Farahidah Mohamed, Fitri Octavianti, Widya Lestari, Ali G. Mukti, Sapta Nirwandar, and Bubaker B. Hamad Almansori 2019. "Optimization and Formulation of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere (F-LM) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Analysis of Its Fucoxanthin Release Profile" Molecules 24, no. 5: 947. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050947

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