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Article

Flavonoid Mixture Inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival and Infectivity

1
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
2
Western University of Health Sciences College of Dental Medicine, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
3
Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine/Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
5
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050851
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
Background: Flavonoids have been shown to exert anti-pathogenic potential, but few studies have investigated their effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infectivity. We hypothesized that a flavonoid mixture would have a favorable influence on cell death and the resolution of Mtb infection in THP-1 macrophages and in granulomas derived from both healthy participants and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: THP-1 macrophages, and in vitro granulomas from healthy participants (N = 8) and individuals with T2DM (N = 5) were infected with Mtb. A mixed flavonoid supplement (MFS) at a concentration of 0.69 mg per ml was added as treatment to Mtb infected THP-1 macrophages and granulomas for 8 to 15 days. RESULTS: MFS treatment significantly reduced the intracellular Mtb survival, increased cell density, aggregation, and granuloma formation, and increased glutathione (GSH) levels. IL-12 and IFN-γ levels tended to be higher and IL-10 lower when Mtb infected THP-1 macrophages and granulomas obtained from healthy subjects were treated with MFS compared to control. CONCLUSIONS: MFS treatment exerted a strong influence against Mtb infectivity in THP-1 macrophages and in granulomas including antimycobacterial effects, GSH enrichment, cytokine regulation, and augmented granuloma formation. Our data support the strategy of increased flavonoid intake for managing tuberculosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mtb; TB; flavonoids; immunomodulation; glutathione; T2DM; polyphenols Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mtb; TB; flavonoids; immunomodulation; glutathione; T2DM; polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, R.; Teskey, G.; Islamoglu, H.; Gutierrez, M.; Salaiz, O.; Munjal, S.; Fraix, M.P.; Sathananthan, A.; Nieman, D.C.; Venketaraman, V. Flavonoid Mixture Inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival and Infectivity. Molecules 2019, 24, 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050851

AMA Style

Cao R, Teskey G, Islamoglu H, Gutierrez M, Salaiz O, Munjal S, Fraix MP, Sathananthan A, Nieman DC, Venketaraman V. Flavonoid Mixture Inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival and Infectivity. Molecules. 2019; 24(5):851. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050851

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cao, Ruoqiong, Garrett Teskey, Hicret Islamoglu, Myra Gutierrez, Oscar Salaiz, Shalok Munjal, Marcel P. Fraix, Airani Sathananthan, David C. Nieman, and Vishwanath Venketaraman. 2019. "Flavonoid Mixture Inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival and Infectivity" Molecules 24, no. 5: 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050851

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