Next Article in Journal
In Vivo and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts from Olive Leaves on Caenorhabditis elegans
Next Article in Special Issue
Physicochemical Properties and Cellular Uptake of Astaxanthin-Loaded Emulsions
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Steaming Processing on Phenolic Profiles and Cellular Antioxidant Activities of Castanea mollissima
Article Menu
Issue 4 (February-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040702

Physicochemical and Microstructural Properties of Polymerized Whey Protein Encapsulated 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Nanoparticles

1
Department of Food Science, College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China
2
Food Science Corporation, Inc., Williston, VT 05495, USA
3
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
4
Department of Food Science, Northeast Agriculture University, Harbin 150030, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yangchao Luo
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
  |  
PDF [4368 KB, uploaded 15 February 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The fat-soluble antioxidant 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), is a natural phytochemical found in Brassica vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. The stability of this compound is a major challenge for its applications. Polymerized whey protein (PWP)-based DIM nanoparticles were prepared at different mass ratios of protein and DIM by mixing PWP and DIM followed by ultrasound treatment for 4 min. All the nanoparticles were studied for particle size, zeta potential, rheological and microstructural properties, and storage stability. The mean particle size of the PWP-based nanoparticles was significantly increased (p < 0.05) by the addition of DIM at different mass ratios, ranging from 241.33 ± 14.82 to 270.57 ± 15.28 nm. Zeta potential values of all nanoparticles were highly negative (greater than ±30 mV), suggesting a stable solution due its electrostatic repulsive forces. All samples exhibited shear thinning behavior (n < 1), fitted with Sisko model (R2 > 0.997). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)spectra revealed that the secondary structure was changed and the absorption intensity for hydrogen bonding got stronger by further incorporating DIM into PWP. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) images showed spherical and smooth surface shape of the PWP-based nanoparticles. DIM encapsulated by PWP showed enhanced stability at 4, 37 and 55 °C for 15 days evidenced by changes in mean particle size and color (a*-value and b*-value) compared with control (DIM only). In conclusion, the polymerized whey protein based 3,3′-diindolylmethane nanoparticles are stable and the encapsulation may protect the core material from oxidation. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3,3′-diindolylmethane; polymerized whey protein; physicochemical properties; nanoparticles 3,3′-diindolylmethane; polymerized whey protein; physicochemical properties; nanoparticles
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, A.; Wang, C.; Sun, X.; Killpartrick, A.; Guo, M. Physicochemical and Microstructural Properties of Polymerized Whey Protein Encapsulated 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Nanoparticles. Molecules 2019, 24, 702.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top