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Molecules 2019, 24(4), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040670

Greek Graviera Cheese Assessment through Elemental Metabolomics—Implications for Authentication, Safety and Nutrition

1
Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
3
Dairy Science and Technology Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the OMICS Platforms in Food Analysis)
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Abstract

This study presents the comprehensive elemental profile of Greek Graviera (Gruyère) cheeses. In total, 105 samples from nine different geographic regions produced from sheep, goat and cow milk and their mixtures were assessed. Elemental signatures of 61 elements were investigated for determination of geographic origin and milk type. Regional and milk type classification through Linear Discriminant Analysis was successful for almost all cases, while a less optimistic cross validation exercise presented lower classification rates. That points to further research using a much larger sample set, increasing confidence for cheese authentication utilizing also bioinformatics tools under development. This is the first study reporting signatures of 61 elements in dairy products including all sixteen rare earth elements and all seven precious metals. Safety and quality were assessed regarding toxic and nutritive elements. According to both EU and USA regulations and directives, Graviera is a nutritional source for trace and macro elements with low levels of toxic elements. View Full-Text
Keywords: authentication; cheese; elemental metabolomics; Graviera; PDO; rare earth elements authentication; cheese; elemental metabolomics; Graviera; PDO; rare earth elements
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Danezis, G.; Theodorou, C.; Massouras, T.; Zoidis, E.; Hadjigeorgiou, I.; Georgiou, C.A. Greek Graviera Cheese Assessment through Elemental Metabolomics—Implications for Authentication, Safety and Nutrition. Molecules 2019, 24, 670.

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