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Open AccessArticle

Valorization of Lignin as an Immobilizing Agent for Bioinoculant Production using Azospirillum brasilense as a Model Bacteria

Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara, AC. Av. Patria 1201, Lomas del Valle, 45129 Zapopan, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Claudia Crestini and Heiko Lange
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4613;
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 5 December 2019 / Accepted: 13 December 2019 / Published: 17 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin—Chemistry and Materials: Past, Present and Future)
Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have been largely considered as beneficial in harsh and limiting environments given their effects on alleviating plant stress. For practical applications, most of the PGPB are prepared in immobilization matrices to improve the stability and benefits of bacteria. Despite the long list of immobilizing agents/carriers tested to date, a long list of desired requirements is yet to be achieved. Here, lignin stands as a scarcely tested immobilizer for bioinoculants with great potential for this purpose. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of lignin as a carrier of the nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum brasilense. These bacteria were cultured in liquid media with recovered organosolv lignin added for bacterial immobilization. Then, lignin was recovered and the immobilized biomass was quantified gravimetrically by DNA extraction and serial dilution plating. Fluorescent microscopy as well as Congo red agar plating showed the immobilization of the bacterial cells in the lignin matrix and crystal violet dyeing showed the biofilms formation in lignin particles. A high number of cells were counted per gram of dried lignin. Lignin can be readily used as low-cost, health-safe bioinoculant carrier to be used in soil and agricultural applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: organosolv; biofertilizer; nitrogen-fixing bacteria; Azospirillum organosolv; biofertilizer; nitrogen-fixing bacteria; Azospirillum
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3531842
MDPI and ACS Style

Tapia-Olivares, V.R.; Vazquez-Bello, E.A.; Aguilar-Garnica, E.; Escalante, F.M. Valorization of Lignin as an Immobilizing Agent for Bioinoculant Production using Azospirillum brasilense as a Model Bacteria. Molecules 2019, 24, 4613.

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