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Open AccessArticle

Questiomycins, Algicidal Compounds Produced by the Marine Bacterium Alteromonas sp. D and Their Production Cue

1
Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611, Japan
2
Lake Biwa Museum, 1091 Oroshimo-cho, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0001, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4522; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244522
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
Questiomycin A (1) along with three new compounds, questiomycins C–E (24), were isolated from culture of Alteromonas sp. D, an algicidal marine bacterium, guided by algal lethality assay using the raphidophyte, Chattonella antiqua, one of the causative organisms of harmful algal bloom. The structures of 14 were assigned on the basis of their spectrometric and spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 to 4 exhibited algicidal activity against C. antiqua with LC50 values ranging from 0.18 to 6.37 M. Co-cultivation experiment revealed that 1 was produced only when the microalgae and the bacterium are in close contact, suggesting that some interactions between them trigger the biosynthesis of questiomycins. These results suggested that the algicidal bacteria such as Alteromonas sp. D can control microalgae chemically in marine ecosystem. View Full-Text
Keywords: algicidal bacteria; questiomycins; phenoxazinone antibiotics; Alteromonas; Chattonella antiqua; harmful algal bloom; red tide algicidal bacteria; questiomycins; phenoxazinone antibiotics; Alteromonas; Chattonella antiqua; harmful algal bloom; red tide
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Umetsu, S.; Kanda, M.; Imai, I.; Sakai, R.; Fujita, M.J. Questiomycins, Algicidal Compounds Produced by the Marine Bacterium Alteromonas sp. D and Their Production Cue. Molecules 2019, 24, 4522.

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