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Open AccessArticle

Production and Application of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis Ali5 in Enhanced Oil Recovery and Motor Oil Removal from Contaminated Sand

1
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology & Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China
2
School of Light Industry, Beijing Technology & Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China
3
Food and Marine Resources Research Center, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Shahrah-e-Dr. Salim-uz-Zaman Siddiqui, Karachi 75280, Pakistan
4
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 21050, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4448; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244448
Received: 18 November 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
The present study describes the production of biosurfactant from isolate B. licheniformis Ali5. Seven different, previously-reported minimal media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two selected media were further optimized for carbon source. Further, various fermentation conditions such as (pH 2–12, temperature 20–50 °C, agitation speed 100–300 rpm, NaCl (0–30 g·L−1) were investigated. The partially purified biosurfactant was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) and found a lipopeptide mixture, similar to lichenysin-A. Biosurfactant reduced surface tension from 72.0 to 26.21 ± 0.3 and interfacial tension by 0.26 ± 0.1 mN·m−1 respectively, biosurfactant yield under optimized conditions was 1 g·L−1, with critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 21 mg·L−1 with high emulsification activity of (E24) 66.4 ± 1.4% against crude oil. Biosurfactant was found to be stable over extreme conditions. It also altered the wettability of hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 49.76° to 16.97°. Biosurfactant efficiently removed (70-79%) motor oil from sand, with an efficiency of more than 2 fold as compared without biosurfactant (36–38%). It gave 32% additional oil recovery over residual oil saturation upon application to a sand-packed column. These results are indicative of potential application of biosurfactant in wettability alteration and ex-situ microbial enhanced oil recovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipopeptide biosurfactant; surface tension; interfacial tension; wettability alteration; sand packed column lipopeptide biosurfactant; surface tension; interfacial tension; wettability alteration; sand packed column
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Ali, N.; Wang, F.; Xu, B.; Safdar, B.; Ullah, A.; Naveed, M.; Wang, C.; Rashid, M.T. Production and Application of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis Ali5 in Enhanced Oil Recovery and Motor Oil Removal from Contaminated Sand. Molecules 2019, 24, 4448.

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